Trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 35-2023 với những nội dung chính như sau:
Về quản lý môi trường
– Một nghiên cứu quan sát kéo dài 21 năm ở Seoul, Hàn Quốc.
– Sự không đồng nhất về không gian và thời gian của ô nhiễm không khí ở Đông Phi.
– Nhiệt độ cao, COVID-19 và tỷ lệ tử vong vượt mức vào mùa hè năm 2022: một nghiên cứu thuần tập dựa trên dữ liệu từ các cuộc khảo sát của Ý.
– Nghiên cứu đặc điểm biến đổi ngày đêm của độ nhạy hình thành ôzôn và tác động của các biện pháp kiểm soát ô nhiễm ôzôn tại các thành phố “2 + 26” tỉnh Hà Nam vào mùa hè.
– Núi nhựa: Rác thải nhựa được quản lý sai lầm dọc theo các nguồn nước Carpathian.
– Tính không đồng nhất về không gian và thời gian và cơ chế thúc đẩy khả năng vận chuyển tài nguyên nước cho sự phát triển bền vững của tỉnh Quảng Đông, Trung Quốc.
– Thuế môi trường tác động như thế nào đến năng suất các nhân tố tổng hợp của doanh nghiệp?Bằng chứng từ cải cách thuế phí môi trường ở Trung Quốc.
– Vai trò của tài chính xanh, các quy định về môi trường và phát triển kinh tế trong quá trình chuyển đổi hướng tới một môi trường bền vững.
– Ước tính lượng phát thải CO2 do con người gây ra ở các quy mô khác nhau để đánh giá các chỉ số SDG: Phương pháp và ứng dụng.
Về môi trường đô thị
– Thành phần tán cây làm thay đổi độ dài mùa trồng trọt ở đô thị nhiều hơn hiệu ứng đảo nhiệt.
– Đặc điểm của nhiệt do con người tạo ra với các ý tưởng mô hình khác nhau và tác động của nó đến các đảo nhiệt đô thị ở bảy thành phố điển hình của Trung Quốc.
– Các hợp chất lưu huỳnh hữu cơ trong vật chất hạt mịn xung quanh ở khu vực thành thị: Những phát hiện về phương pháp tiếp cận không nhắm mục tiêu.
– Xác định chế độ hóa học O3 được suy ra từ mô hình hàng tuần của O3, CO, NOx và PM10 trong khí quyển: Quan sát trong 5 năm tại một khu đô thị trung tâm ở Thượng Hải, Trung Quốc.
– Sự phát triển tổng hợp của cụm đô thị có cải thiện năng suất carbon không? -Bằng chứng thực nghiệm từ Trung Quốc.
– Đánh giá sự phát triển đồng bộ của đô thị hóa và giá trị dịch vụ hệ sinh thái ở các huyện biên giới.
– Các điểm nóng đô thị quan trọng về lắng đọng nguyên tố vi lượng trong khí quyển và các tác động tiềm ẩn đối với ô nhiễm đất đô thị ở Trung Quốc.
– Dự đoán các chất gây ô nhiễm khí quyển trong môi trường đô thị dựa trên mô hình học sâu kết hợp và phân tích độ nhạy.
– Quang phổ ma trận kích thích-phát xạ huỳnh quang kết hợp phân tích hệ số song song để xác định hằng số phân rã clo trong hệ thống phân phối nước đô thị.
– Tuyển nổi không khí được hỗ trợ bởi chất hoạt động bề mặt: Một phương pháp mới để loại bỏ vi nhựa khỏi tro đáy lò đốt chất thải rắn đô thị.
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
– Tích lũy kim loại nặng, dấu ấn sinh học và sinh hóa ở giun đất Eisenia andrei tiếp xúc với đất bị ô nhiễm công nghiệp từ phía đông nam Tunisia (Thủ đô Gabes).
– Những cân nhắc về nền kinh tế tuần hoàn Phosphogypsum: Đánh giá phê bình từ hơn 65 địa điểm lưu trữ trên toàn thế giới.
– Tác động điều tiết của đổi mới công nghệ sạch trong quá trình quản lý môi trường ảnh hưởng đến việc làm: Phân tích dữ liệu bảng dựa trên 22 ngành công nghiệp ở Trung Quốc.
– Tác động của đổi mới công nghệ xanh đến lượng khí thải carbon dioxide: Vai trò của các quy định môi trường địa phương.
– Hiệu quả khắc phục và trạng thái vận hành của kho chứa chất thải nhà máy uranium (UMT) đã ngừng hoạt động: Quan điểm sinh thái vi mô dựa trên cộng đồng vi khuẩn.
– Nhỏ nhưng không thể thay thế: Giá trị bảo tồn của tàn tích cảnh quan đối với sự đa dạng thực vật đô thị.
– Quang xúc tác loại bỏ đồng thời thuốc nhuộm hữu cơ và kim loại nặng khỏi nước thải dệt may trên TiO2 pha tạp N trên graphene oxit khử.
– Chiến lược tài chính xanh cho nền kinh tế ít carbon: Vai trò của nhập khẩu công nghệ cao và sức mạnh thể chế ở Trung Quốc.
– Các lựa chọn thay thế an toàn và hiệu quả hơn cho chất hoạt động bề mặt gốc perfluoroalkyl trong các giải pháp ăn mòn cho ngành bán dẫn.
CHUYÊN TRANG QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam
Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. Do heat waves worsen air quality? A 21-year observational study in Seoul, South Korea
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 884, 1 August 2023, 163798
Heat waves are generally known to deteriorate air quality. However, the impacts of heat waves on air quality can substantially vary depending on the characteristics of heat waves. In this study, we examine air quality changes in Seoul during heat waves and their associations with large-scale atmospheric patterns. For this, air quality data from 25 stations and meteorological data from 23 weather stations and reanalysis datasets during July and August of 2001–2021 are used. Under heat waves, the mean daily PM10, NO2, and CO concentrations decrease by 7.9 %, 6.1 %, and 4.6 %, respectively, whereas the mean daily PM2.5, O3, and SO2 concentrations increase by 4.1 %, 17.2 %, and 2.9 %, respectively. The atmospheric circulation under heat waves is less favorable for long-range transport of air pollutants to Seoul. The PM2.5/PM10 ratio increases under heat waves, indicating that the secondary formation of aerosols becomes more important under heat waves. 37 % of the heat wave days are accompanied by severe O3 pollution exceeding the O3 concentration standard in South Korea. There is a significant variability of air quality in Seoul within heat waves. The heat wave days with higher concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, O3, NO2, and CO than their non-heat wave means exhibit a prominent difference in large-scale atmospheric pattern from the heat wave days with lower concentrations. This difference is characterized by a zonal wave-like pattern of geopotential height, which is similar to the circumglobal teleconnection pattern known as one of the major patterns for heat waves in South Korea. This zonal wave-like pattern produces more stagnant conditions over Seoul.
2. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of air pollution in East Africa
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 886, 15 August 2023, 163734
East Africa’s air pollution levels are deteriorating due to anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions and unfavorable weather conditions. This study investigates the changes and influencing factors of air pollution in East Africa from 2001 to 2021. The study found that air pollution in the region is heterogeneous, with increasing trends observed in pollution hot spots (PHS) while it decreased in pollution cold spots (PCS). The analysis identified four major pollution periods: High Pollution period 1, Low Pollution period 1, High Pollution period 2, and Low Pollution period 2, which occur during Feb-Mar, Apr-May, Jun-Aug and Oct-Nov, respectively. The study also revealed that long range transport of pollutants to the study area is primarily influenced by distant sources from the eastern, western, southern, and northern part of the continent. The seasonal meteorological conditions, such as high sea level pressure in the upper latitudes, cold air masses from the northern hemisphere, dry vegetation, and a dry and less humid atmosphere from boreal winter, further impact the transport of pollutants. The concentrations of pollutants were found to be influenced by climate factors, such as temperature, precipitation, and wind patterns. The study identified different pollution patterns in different seasons, with some areas having minimal anthropogenic pollution due to high vegetation vigor and moderate precipitation. Using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), the study quantified the magnitude of spatial variation in air pollution. The OLS trends indicated that 66 % of pixels exhibited decreasing trends while 34 % showed increasing trends, and DFA results indicating that 36 %, 15 %, and 49 % of pixels exhibited anti-persistence, random, and persistence in air pollution, respectively. Areas in the region experiencing increasing or decreasing trends in air pollution, which can be used to prioritize interventions and resources for improving air quality, were also highlighted. It also identifies the driving forces behind air pollution trends, such as anthropogenic or biomass burning, which can inform policy decisions aimed at reducing air pollution emissions from these sources. The findings on the persistence, reversibility, and variability of air pollution can inform the development of long-term policies for improving air quality and protecting public health.
3. High temperature, COVID-19, and mortality excess in the 2022 summer: a cohort study on data from Italian surveillances
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 887, 20 August 2023, 164104
We aimed to assess whether the effect of high temperature on mortality differed in COVID-19 survivors and naive. We used data from the summer mortality and COVID-19 surveillances. We found 3.8 % excess risk in 2022 summer, compared to 2015–2019, while 20 % in the last fortnight of July, the period with the highest temperature. The increase in mortality rates during the second fortnight of July was higher among naïve compared to COVID-19 survivors. The time series analysis confirmed the association between temperatures and mortality in naïve people, showing an 8 % excess (95%CI 2 to 13) for a one-degree increase of Thom Discomfort Index while in COVID-19 survivors the effect was almost null with −1 % (95%CI −9 to 9). Our results suggest that the high fatality rate of COVID-19 in fragile people has decreased the proportion of susceptible people who can be affected by the extremely high temperature.
4. How does internet development drive the sustainable economic growth of China? Evidence from internal-structural perspective of green total-factor productivity
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 887, 20 August 2023, 164125
Clarifying internal-structural transmission paths of internet development on China’s green total-factor productivity (GTFP) is of great significance for understanding China’s economic growth in the era of digital transition. In this paper, GTFP is decomposed by three-hierarchy meta-frontier DEA into technology, industrial structural, regional balance development, scale, and management efficiencies based on China’s provincial data. Then, dynamic GMM models are applied to investigate the internal-structural effect of internet development on GTFP. The results illustrate that internet development significantly improves GTFP by promoting technology, optimizing industrial structural, and advancing scale efficiencies. But it inhibits regional balance development and management efficiencies. Based on the results, this study offers new insights and valuable policy implications for China to promote sustainable economic growth.
5. Research on the diurnal variation characteristics of ozone formation sensitivity and the impact of ozone pollution control measures in “2 + 26” cities of Henan Province in summer
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 888, 25 August 2023, 164121
Near-surface ozone pollution is becoming an increasingly serious air quality issue in China, especially in “2 + 26” cities (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and nearby cities). HN2 + 26 cities (“2 + 26” cities of Henan Province) are located in the south of “2 + 26” cities, with frequent and severe ozone pollution events in recent years. This study investigated the diurnal evolution characteristics of ozone formation sensitivity (OFS) of HN2 + 26 cities from May to September in 2021 by the innovative combination of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2B) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite data, and assessed the impact of ozone pollution control measures (OPCMs) implemented from June 26 to July 1, 2021. The localized FNR (ratio of formaldehyde to nitrogen dioxide of satellite measurement) threshold (1.4–2.55) was established, and it was found that OFS in May–September 2021 was mainly in VOCs-limited regime in the morning (∼10:00), while transitional/NOx-limited regime in the afternoon (∼14:00). Three periods (before, during and after the OPCMs) were divided to evaluate the impact of OPCMs on OFS. It was indicated that OPCMs had no impact on the morning OFS, but had a significant impact on the afternoon OFS. Specifically, the OFS in two industrial cities Xinxiang (XX) and Zhengzhou (ZZ) shifted from transitional regime to NOx-limited regime after the OPCMs. We further investigated OFS differences between urban and suburban areas and found that OFS shift of XX only existed in urban areas, while that of ZZ existed in both urban and suburban areas. We compared their measures and found that it is effective to take hierarchical control measures on different levels of ozone pollution days to alleviate ozone pollution. This study provides an improved understanding of diurnal evolution characteristics of OFS and the impacts of OPCMs on it, which will provide a theoretical basis for formulating more scientific ozone pollution control policies.
6. Mountains of plastic: Mismanaged plastic waste along the Carpathian watercourses
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 888, 25 August 2023, 164058
Plastic waste poses numerous risks to mountain river ecosystems due to their high biodiversity and specific physical characteristics. Here, we provide a baseline assessment for future evaluation of such risks in the Carpathians, one of the most biodiverse mountain ranges in East-Central Europe. We used high-resolution river network and mismanaged plastic waste (MPW) databases to map MPW along the 175,675 km of watercourses draining this ecoregion. We explored MPW levels as a function of altitude, stream order, river basin, country, and type of nature conservation in a given area. The Carpathian watercourses below 750 m a.s.l. (142,282 km, 81 % of the stream lengths) are identified as significantly affected by MPW. Most MPW hotspots (>409.7 t/yr/km2) occur along rivers in Romania (6568 km; 56.6 % of all hotspot lengths), Hungary (2679 km; 23.1 %), and Ukraine (1914 km; 16.5 %). The majority of the river sections flowing through the areas with negligible MPW (< 1 t/yr/km2) occur in Romania (31,855 km; 47.8 %), Slovakia (14,577 km; 21.9 %), and Ukraine (7492; 11.2 %). The Carpathian watercourses flowing through the areas protected at national level (3988 km; 2.3 % of all watercourses studied) have significantly higher MPW values (median = 7.7 t/yr/km2) than those protected at regional (51,800 km; 29.5 %) (median MPW = 1.25 t/yrkm2) and international levels (66 km; 0.04 %) (median MPW = 0 t/yr/km2). Rivers within the Black Sea basin (88.3 % of all studied watercourses) have significantly higher MPW (median = 5.1 t/yr/km2, 90th percentile = 381.1 t/yr/km2) than those within the Baltic Sea basin (median = 6.5 t/yr/km2, 90th percentile = 84.8 t/yr/km2) (11.1 % of all studied watercourses). Our study indicates the locations and extent of riverine MPW hotspots in the Carpathian Ecoregion, which can support future collaborations between scientists, engineers, governments, and citizens to better manage plastic pollution in this region.
7. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity and driving mechanisms of water resources carrying capacity for sustainable development of Guangdong Province in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 412, 1 August 2023, 137398
Sustainable water resources utilization is of great significance for sustainable socioeconomic development. Water resources carrying capacity (WRCC), as an important measurement, plays a vital role in guiding regional water resources management and sustainable utilization. Existing studies on WRCC are abundant, but in-depth studies on the multidimensional evolution of WRCC and its driving mechanism are still lacking. Therefore, taking Guangdong (GD) Province as a case, this study is aimed to propose a systematical WRCC research framework and attempts to explore the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of regional WRCC and reveal its evolutionary driving mechanisms. First, a simplified and effective WRCC index system is constructed through the correlation and contribution rate analysis to remove redundant information. Then, a coupled model consisting of an improved technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) and grey relational analysis model is proposed to accurately evaluate WRCC. Last, the geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR) and geographical detector models are introduced to perform the driving analysis of WRCC. Results show that (1) from 2009 to 2020, the WRCCs of GD Province and its 21 cities all show an upward trend with the order of the WRCCs from high to low being northern GD, Pearl River Delta (PRD), eastern GD and western GD. (2) The main driving forces of WRCC in GD gradually shift from social and economic development to economic and ecological development. (3) Municipal sewage treatment rate, proportion of the tertiary industry and GDP per capita are the key driving factors of the GD WRCC. This study provides a new perspective for regional WRCC improvement and is greatly helpful to make differentiated management measures.
8. How does environmental tax affect enterprises’ total factor productivity? Evidence from the reform of environmental fee-to-tax in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 413, 10 August 2023, 137441
To achieve its carbon peak and neutrality targets, China is in need of balancing environmental and economic sustainability; In addition, whether environmental regulations can gain economic dividends while protecting the environment is particularly important. Based on the data of A-share listed companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen from 2012 to 2021, this study takes China’s environmental fee-to-tax as a quasi-natural experiment, and adopts the difference-in-difference-in-differences model to evaluate the impact of environmental tax on enterprises’ total factor productivity (ETFP). The results show that the environmental fee-to-tax significantly hinders the growth of ETFP. Further, this negative impact mainly stems from the fact that the reform prompts enterprises to choose strategic innovation and conduct greenwashing behavior. Furthermore, when considering enterprises’ heterogeneity, we find that enterprises with large scale, high investment efficiency, state ownership, high market competitiveness and located in western regions are more resistant to policy shocks. This paper provides reliable empirical evidence and useful policy implications for further formulating environmental tax policies to accomplish the “win-win” goal for both the environment and the economy.
9. Role of green finance, environmental regulations, and economic development in the transition towards a sustainable environment
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 413, 10 August 2023, 137425
The critical issue of environmental sustainability is among the top priorities of sustainable development goals (SDGs) and the conference of parties (COP) 26. This study extensively analyzes the impact of green finance (GF), renewable energy, environmental regulations, and carbon finance towards environmental sustainability using panel dataset of 70 countries from 2012 to 2020. Generalized method of moments (GMM) is used to sidestep the matter of endogeneity. First, a novel index is developed by combining several indicators of green finance to measure its impact on environmental sustainability by lowering CO2 emissions. The results show a significant impact of green finance as well as renewable energy on environmental sustainability, whereas the effect of carbon finance is insignificant. Second, the moderating role of environmental regulations, devised by Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) policies, between GF and CO2 emissions shows the importance of these regulations in moving towards a sustainable environment. Finally, this study examined the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) of 70 countries and confirmed the presence of an inverted U-shape curve. The results confirm the significance of green finance as an indicator in EKC fitting, thus, supporting its importance. This study recommends long-term green finance projects and implications of environmental regulations to ensure environmental sustainability.
10. Estimation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions at different scales for assessing SDG indicators: Method and application
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 414, 15 August 2023, 137547
The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2 is one of the major causes of global warming. Accurate estimation of anthropogenic carbon emissions is significant for the government to monitor CO2 emissions timely and formulate emission reduction policies. To explore the application potential of interannual carbon emission distribution estimated by remotely-sensed data in monitoring carbon-related indicators of SDGs, this study constructed 0.2° grid-scale and municipal-scale anthropogenic CO2 emission models in mainland China and calculated carbon intensity and total CO2 emissions from 2015 to 2020. SDG indicator 9.4.1 and 13.2.2 were used as model indicators to evaluate the achievement of cities in each province. The experimental results show that all cities in Shanxi, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Guizhou Province, as well as Beijing, Chongqing, and Shanghai City, have reached the indicator 9.4.1. For the indicator 13.2.2, 15.6% of the cities have successfully controlled the growth of total carbon emissions, among which the Yangtze River Delta controlled well while that in the western region were slowly decreasing. Other cities still have a certain distance to reach the indicator 9.4.1 and 13.2.2. Using remote sensing data to quantify anthropogenic CO2 emissions at different scales can assist local governments in monitoring key energy-using units according to the emission distribution results and can also effectively solve the problems of lagging, absent and opacity of carbon emission statistics. It can provide indirect evidences for assessing local SDG indicators and technical support for relevant institutions to make decisions based on local conditions.
11. Spatial convergence and transfer path of atmospheric emission efficiency: An empirical analysis from China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 414, 15 August 2023, 137675
With the rapid economic growth, people’s need for environment and atmospheric qualities is getting higher. The Chinese government is taking active measures to deal with it, and the scientific evaluation of atmospheric emission efficiency is necessary for atmospheric environment management. Concerning this reason, this paper uses the non-radial DEA model and the PS (Phillips and Sul) convergence test to study the atmospheric emission efficiency and spatial convergence characteristics in China and analyzes the changing trends and transfer path of atmospheric emission efficiency from a dynamic perspective. We conclude that (1) the overall level of atmospheric emission efficiency in China is low, and further improvement can be done; (2) there is a positive relationship between atmospheric emission efficiency and regional economic development; (3) there are obvious characteristics of unbalanced distribution and regional distribution of atmospheric emission efficiency; (4) the transfer path of atmospheric emission efficiency shows a decreasing trend year by year, which indicates that China’s atmospheric environment is gradually being improved. These findings show some directions for the atmospheric environment management in China and can help the cities to deal with atmospheric pollution management issues.
12. Evaluation and comparative analysis of urban public institutions energy-environmental efficiency from the perspective of dual carbon
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 414, 15 August 2023, 137732
The ‘dual carbon’ goals are China’s long-term development strategy for low greenhouse gas emissions in the mid-21st century, and energy conservation and emission reduction are major decisions and plans made by the Chinese government to achieve the ‘dual carbon’ goals. Energy conservation in public institutions is the focus of China’s 14th Five-Year Plan, the accurate evaluation of energy efficiency is a prerequisite for energy conservation in public institutions and an important element in achieving China’s dual carbon goals. Therefore, we propose the Slacks Based Measure-Data Envelopment Analysis (SBM-DEA) model considering carbon emissions to evaluate the energy-environmental efficiency of urban public institutions in subtropical regions of China and apply the Gini coefficient to measure the unbalanced development of energy-environmental efficiency in similar institutions. The results demonstrate that: (1) The current energy-environmental efficiency of urban public institutions is 0.83, and there are significant differences in the energy-environmental efficiency of different types of public institutions; (2) The average value of institutional scale efficiency is close to the optimal level, and the main factor currently limiting the energy-environmental efficiency of urban public institutions is pure technical efficiency; (3) The average energy-environmental efficiency of the model considering the unexpected carbon emission indicators of public institutions is 1.82% higher than the model without carbon emission. Due to its non-parametric nature, this method shows good applicability for multi-input and multi-output energy-environmental efficiency assessment, which could be a guideline for quantifying the energy-saving potential of public institutions.
13. Air pollution monitoring and avoidance behavior: Evidence from the health insurance market
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 414, 15 August 2023, 137780
Previous studies have often focused on the direct benefits of environmental regulations on health. This paper quantifies the impact of environmental regulations on the cost of prevention for urban residents. The purpose of this study is to examine how environmental regulations affect urban commercial health insurance purchases. Air pollution monitoring stations in China capture exogenous air quality changes to overcome potential endogenous problems. Evidence shows that an increase in the operating days of air pollution monitoring stations will reduce the purchase of commercial health insurance in the city. The mechanism is that the operation of air pollution monitoring stations is conducive to improving local air quality and alleviating residents’ health prevention needs. Heterogeneity analysis shows that the impact of air pollution monitoring station operation on the cost of prevention is less effective in more developed cities. Finally, we demonstrate that the number of claims for commercial health insurance dropped with the operation of air pollution monitoring stations. The results show that the benefits of improved air pollution do not only include the direct benefits of increased health, but also include the potential benefits of reduced prevention costs. Ultimately, the results further indicate the importance of air pollution control.
14. Understanding spatial evolution of global climate change risk: Insights from convergence analysis
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 413, 10 August 2023, 137423
In effective policy formulation, an understanding of the spatial evolution of global climate change loss risk and its determinants is necessary. Thus, this paper attempts to detect the club convergence characteristics of global climate change loss risk and the social and economic determinants leading to club convergence. The Global Climate Risk Indices published by Germanwatch is adopted as the main indicator for club convergence, which captures the extent of losses from climate change events. The empirical study indicates there are four convergent clubs among 167 countries, and they are significant differences in climate change loss risk and space distribution. Urbanization rate, population density, and national education level are the three top important social and economic drivers for forming the convergence clubs. Additionally, this research conducts further exploration of the climate change economic and demographic loss risks, demonstrating the heterogeneities among different risks.
15. To what extent can clean energy development advance the carbon peaking process of China?
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 412, 1 August 2023, 137424
Many studies have demonstrated the importance of clean energy development for China to meet its carbon peaking commitments and to contribute to solving world environmental problems. However, few studies have integrated spatial correlation and carbon peaking process to fully reveal the spatial spillover effects of carbon emissions and the urgency of emission reduction. The unexpected power cuts in 2020 poses a new requirement to deeply grasp China’s clean energy development and carbon peaking attainment. To this end, the spatial econometric panel model and GM (1, N) are used to explore the development of clean energy, the spatial characteristics of carbon emissions, the process of carbon peaking, and the association between them. And all these are based on the real-life dilemma of power cuts and the underlying development-emission conflict in China. The results show that: (1) clean energy development in a region will increase local carbon emissions, but will significantly suppress carbon emissions in neighboring regions; (2) there is an inverted “U” curve relationship between clean energy development and carbon emissions, and China is still in the early stage of positive correlation; (3) fossil energy saved in a region tends to flow to neighboring regions with similar scale of economic development; (4) under the current development model, only 17% of the regions with clean energy development will be able to reduce emissions and successfully reach the peak by 2030, which implies a major emissions reduction challenge for China. The situation of carbon emission reduction in China is far from optimistic. Corresponding policy recommendations are given at the end. In short, we believe that greater clean energy support, stricter emission reduction policies, more diverse emission reduction approaches, and more synergistic emission reduction models are needed simultaneously.
16. Application of wastewater-based surveillance and copula time-series model for COVID-19 forecasts
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 885, 10 August 2023, 163655
The objective of this study was to develop a novel copula-based time series (CTS) model to forecast COVID-19 cases and trends based on wastewater SARS-CoV-2 viral load and clinical variables. Wastewater samples were collected from wastewater pumping stations in five sewersheds in the City of Chesapeake VA. Wastewater SARS-CoV-2 viral load was measured using reverse transcription droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR). The clinical dataset included daily COVID-19 reported cases, hospitalization cases, and death cases. The CTS model development included two steps: an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model for time series analysis (step I), and an integration of ARMA and a copula function for marginal regression analysis (step II). Poisson and negative binomial marginal probability densities for copula functions were used to determine the forecasting capacity of the CTS model for COVID-19 forecasts in the same geographical area. The dynamic trends predicted by the CTS model were well suited to the trend of the reported cases as the forecasted cases from the CTS model fell within the 99 % confidence interval of the reported cases. Wastewater SARS CoV-2 viral load served as a reliable predictor for forecasting COVID-19 cases. The CTS model provided robust modeling to predict COVID-19 cases.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Canopy composition drives variability in urban growing season length more than the heat island effect
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 884, 1 August 2023, 163818
The elevated heat of urban areas compared to their surroundings makes humid temperate cities a useful preview of future climate effects on natural forest phenology. The utility of this proxy rests on the expectation that trees in urban areas alter their phenology in response to warmer site conditions in spring and fall. However, it is possible that apparent lengthening of the growing season is instead governed by human-driven tree species selection and plant functional type (PFT; trees, shrubs, turfgrass) heterogeneity typical of managed landscapes. Without the use of highly spatially and temporally resolved remote sensing data, the roles of tree taxonomy and local site characteristics (e.g., impervious cover) in controlling phenology remain confounded. To understand the drivers of earlier start of season (SOS) and later end of season (EOS) among urban trees, we estimated individual tree phenology using >130 high-resolution satellite images per year (2018–2020) for ~10,000 species-labeled trees in Washington, DC. We found that species identity alone accounted for 4× more variability in the timing of SOS and EOS compared with a tree’s planting location characteristics. Additionally, the urban mix of PFTs may be more responsible for apparent advances in SOS (by between 1.8 ± 1.3 and 3.5 ± 1.3 days) than heat per se. The results of this study caution against associating longer growing seasons in cities—observed in moderate to coarse resolution remote sensing imagery—to within-species phenological plasticity and demonstrate the power of high-resolution satellite data for tracking tree phenology in biodiverse environments.
2. Characteristics of anthropogenic heat with different modeling ideas and its driving effect on urban heat islands in seven typical Chinese cities
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 886, 15 August 2023, 163989
Anthropogenic heat (AH), an essential urban heat source, is often overlooked or simplified in research on the multiple temporal and spatial driving mechanisms of the urban heat island (UHI), and case studies investigating the impacts of different AH connotations are scarce. This study estimated the AH in seven typical Chinese cities based on a remote sensing surface energy balance model and an energy consumption inventory-machine learning model. The intensity of the surface UHI was extracted using land surface temperatures, and then the linear mixed-effects model and geographic detectors were used to analyze the driving effect of AH on the UHI. Despite the similar shapes of the spatial profile curves, the AH derived from the two models differed in both temporal and spatial characteristics, which was more typical in winter and in urban centers, and had a more notable central spread feature than. The AH driving effects on UHI were notably influenced by spatial and temporal heterogeneity, particularly in regions with distinct background climates. However, after controlling for the random effects of the background climate, AH still exhibited a considerable enhancing effect on the UHI. outperformed in terms of linear positive correlation and interpretation rate for UHI. Meanwhile, interactions with other potential factors enhanced AH driving effects. Consequently, UHI mitigation must be tailored to the local context by integrating multiple drivers, and for the heating effects of AH, it is necessary to develop specific mitigation measures by limiting the conversion of to in addition to reducing the heat production. The findings offer guidance for analyzing and optimizing urban thermal climates with a focus on AH or energy consumption control.
3. Organosulfur compounds in ambient fine particulate matter in an urban region: Findings of a nontargeted approach
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 887, 20 August 2023, 164114
Organosulfur compounds (OSCs) are important components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5); however, little information is available on OSCs in urban regions due to their chemical complexity, especially for novel species such as aromatic sulfonates. To supplement the detection technique and systematically identify OSCs, in this study we developed a nontargeted approach based on gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) to screen OSCs in PM2.5 of urban Beijing and provide field evidence for their source and formation mechanism. 76 OSCs were found through mass difference of sulfur isotopes and characteristic sulfur-containing fragments. 6 species were confirmed as aromatic sulfonates by authentic standards. 32 OSCs showed higher levels in the heating season, presumably because of the intensive emission, especially from coal combustion. While certain species, with 2-sulfobenzoic acid as the representative, were 2.6-times higher in the non-heating season than in the heating season. Such species were significantly correlated with ozone and aerosol liquid water content (r = 0.2–0.8, p < 0.05), implying an oxidation-involved aqueous-phase formation in the atmosphere. In addition, with an average proportion of ∼95 % of the total sulfobenzoic acids, the predominance of the 2-substitution product over its isomers of 3- or 4-sulfobenzoic acid suggests a more plausible mechanism of radical-initiated reaction of phthalic acid followed by sulfonation, with atmospheric reactivity indicated by ozone and temperature as the determining factor. This study provided not only a nontargeted approach for OSCs in ambient PM2.5, but also field evidence on their secondary formation proposed in previous simulation studies.
4. Identifying the O3 chemical regime inferred from the weekly pattern of atmospheric O3, CO, NOx, and PM10: Five-year observations at a center urban site in Shanghai, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 888, 25 August 2023, 164079
Ozone pollution is still considered a severe environmental problem in China despite the fact that great efforts have been devoted to monitoring and alleviating its impact by the Chinese government including the establishment of numerous observational networks. One of the issues most relevant to the design of emission reduction policies is to distinguish the O3 chemical regime. Here a method of quantifying the fraction of the radical loss versus NOx chemistry was applied to identify the O3 chemical regime inferred from the weekly pattern of atmospheric O3, CO, NOx, and PM10, which were monitored by Ministry of Ecology and Environment of China (MEEC). During spring and autumn, O3 and the total odd oxygen (Ox, Ox = O3 + NO2) weekend afternoon concentrations are both higher than the weekday values during 2015–2019 except in 2016, while CO and NOx weekend morning concentrations were generally both smaller than weekday values except 2017. Results from the calculated values of fraction of the radical loss by NOx chemistry relative to total radical loss (Ln/Q) suggested a volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited regime at this site in the spring of 2015–2019, as expected from the decreasing trend in NOx concentration and essentially constant CO after 2017. With respect to autumn, a shift from a transition regime during 2015–2017 to a VOC-limited regime in 2018 was found, which rapidly took place to a NOx-limited regime in 2019. No significant differences were detected in the Ln/Q values under different assumptions on photolysis frequencies both in spring and autumn mostly from 2015 to 2019, giving the same conclusion of determining the O3 sensitivity regime. This study develops a new method in determining the O3 sensitivity regime in the typical season in China and provides insight into efficient O3 control strategies in different seasons.
5. Has the synergistic development of urban cluster improved carbon productivity? –Empirical evidence from China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 414, 15 August 2023, 137535
As urbanization has developed, a variety of urban clusters have gradually emerged with important effects on regional economic growth and carbon emissions. This paper constructs a multi-period difference-in-difference (DID) model for testing how urban cluster synergistic development policy (UCSDP) affects urban carbon productivity in 148 cities of China with 13 urban clusters as the experimental group from 2003 to 2019. According to the results, the UCSDP improves carbon productivity, mainly via reducing energy intensity. In addition, UCSDP improves carbon productivity by adjusting energy structure, increasing green innovation, altering city greening levels, and accelerating the process of urbanization. Moreover, it can produce synergistic effects in terms of energy structure, green innovation, greening level, and urbanization level. Furthermore, the UCSDP has heterogeneous effects on the carbon productivity in various cities. Specifically, the carbon productivity of high-status, high-rank, and resource-based cities responds more significantly to UCSDP. Therefore, policymakers should strengthen the integration of urban clusters, offer targeted development suggestions for different cities, modify the energy and greening structure, accelerate the process of urbanization, and focus on the formulation of reasonable environmental regulation policies.
6. Valuing the coordinated development of urbanization and ecosystem service value in border counties
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 415, 20 August 2023, 137799
Improving coordination between urbanization and ecosystem service value (ESV) in border counties can help optimize the spatial patterns of regional coordinated development. However, the majority of current analysis focuses on the urbanization process of core areas and large-scale administrative units and lacks a quantitative investigation of border counties. Taking 25 border counties in Yunnan Province, China, as research cases, this study evaluated urbanization level and ESV. A coupling coordination degree (CCD) model and a geographical detector model were used to explore the interaction of the two systems and reveal the influencing factors. Furthermore, different scenarios were simulated to reveal the effects of policy priorities on CCD. The results showed the following: (1) The urbanization level increased from 2005 to 2019 while the ESV level fluctuated, showing spatial patterns of having multiple centers and being high in the middle and low at both ends, respectively. (2) Although CCD increased, its level was still low, and the urbanization of most counties lagged behind. (3) Normalized difference vegetation index, temperature, and largest patch index were the main factors affecting CCD, and the interaction effects between any two of these factors were stronger than the independent effect of any single factor. (4) Policy priorities had a significant effect on CCD. Our findings can provide references for border cities in similar contexts to balance urbanization and ESV based on local circumstances.
7. Significant urban hotspots of atmospheric trace element deposition and potential effects on urban soil pollution in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 415, 20 August 2023, 137872
Rapid urbanization has profoundly altered the spatial patterns of multiple element cycles. Whether and how urbanization shapes the spatial patterns of atmospheric trace element deposition remains, however, poorly understood. Using a newly compiled database on bulk deposition of eight trace elements (i.e., Cu, Ni, Zn, As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb) in China, we assessed the urban imprints on the spatial patterns of trace element deposition. Bulk deposition of the eight trace elements all showed a significant increase with closer distance to the nearest large cities, while the urban effect was also mediated by point emission sources and precipitation. We further compiled a database of urban topsoil (0–10 cm) concentrations of the eight trace elements and found that urban soil quality standards were exceeded in 80% of the studied cities for Cr, 49% for As, and less than 25% for other trace elements, respectively. The urban topsoil concentrations of six trace elements (except As and Hg) showed no significant correlations with their background values for natural soils, while we found a significant correlation between bulk deposition and urban topsoil concentrations of trace elements corrected by background values. We also demonstrated that current levels of trace element deposition would substantially increase urban soil pollution over the coming decades. Our findings confirm the occurrence of urban hotspots of trace element deposition and their impact on soil pollution and highlight a need of emission control of trace elements for safety urban soil quality.
8. Prediction of atmospheric pollutants in urban environment based on coupled deep learning model and sensitivity analysis
Chemosphere, Volume 331, August 2023, 138830
Accurate and efficient predictions of pollutants in the atmosphere provide a reliable basis for the scientific management of atmospheric pollution. This study develops a model that combines an attention mechanism, convolutional neural network (CNN), and long short-term memory (LSTM) unit to predict the O3 and PM2.5 levels in the atmosphere, as well as an air quality index (AQI). The prediction results given by the proposed model are compared with those from CNN-LSTM and LSTM models as well as random forest and support vector regression models. The proposed model achieves a correlation coefficient between the predicted and observed values of more than 0.90, outperforming the other four models. The model errors are also consistently lower when using the proposed approach. Sobol-based sensitivity analysis is applied to identify the variables that make the greatest contribution to the model prediction results. Taking the COVID-19 outbreak as the time boundary, we find some homology in the interactions among the pollutants and meteorological factors in the atmosphere during different periods. Solar irradiance is the most important factor for O3, CO is the most important factor for PM2.5, and particulate matter has the most significant effect on AQI. The key influencing factors are the same over the whole phase and before the COVID-19 outbreak, indicating that the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on AQI gradually stabilized. Removing variables that contribute the least to the prediction results without affecting the model prediction performance improves the modeling efficiency and reduces the computational costs.
9. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis to determine chlorine decay constants in urban water distribution system
Chemosphere, Volume 331, August 2023, 138733
This study applied a method for estimating chlorine decay constant (k) in urban water distribution systems using fluorescence excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy-parallel factor analysis (FEEM-PARAFAC), considering that it accounts for the influence of organic matter in the target area. The simultaneous impacts of seasonal variations on chlorine consumption and dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition were investigated for a year in three full-scale water distribution systems in I city (areas S, K, and G). Bulk decay constants (kb) were obtained through bottle tests, and the kb value was observed to differ by season and significantly affected by temperature. It exhibited its highest value, 0.794 d−1, in summer at area G. As a result of analyses through F-EEM-PARAFAC, it was determined that the components of the target raw water were humic-like and tryptophan-like. The quantitative analysis of organic substances through PARAFAC revealed that area G had the highest score (C1+C2) than other areas. 11.568, 10.578, and 11.771 in summer at areas S, K, and G, respectively. The model equations were derived such that the significant (R2 = 0.85–0.95) correlation between the C1 and C2 model scores and total chlorine decay constants (kt) verified via PARAFAC analysis of the target raw water was considered. Furthermore, a method for obtaining the wall decay constants at a target point based on the correlation equation was investigated.
10. Interaction between home and community-based services and PM2.5 on cognition: A prospective cohort study of Chinese elderly
Environmental Research, Volume 231, Part 1, 15 August 2023, 116048
PM2.5 and home and community-based services (HCBSs) had been shown to affect cognition, but the evidence on their joint effects was limited. Aimed to study the joint effects of HCBSs and PM2.5 on cognition, we utilized the follow-up data of participants in the Chinese Longitudinal Health Longevity Survey (CLHLS) who were 65 years of age or older and had normal cognitive function at baseline for the 2008–2018, 2011–2018, and 2014–2018 waves. 16,954, 9,765, and 7192 participants from each of these three waves were initially recruited, respectively. The PM2.5 concentration data of each province in China from 2008 to 2018 was obtained from the Atmospheric Composition Analysis Group. Participants were asked what kind of HCBSs were available in their community. The cognitive status of the participants was evaluated by the Chinese version of Mini-Mental State Examination (CMMSE). We applied the Cox proportional hazard regression model to investigate the joint effects of HCBSs and PM2.5 on cognition and further stratified the analysis according to HCBSs. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated based on Cox models. During a median follow-up period of 5.2 years, 911 (8.8%) participants with normal baseline cognitive function developed cognitive impairment. Compared to participants without HCBSs and exposed to the highest level of PM2.5, those with HCBSs and exposed to the lowest level of PM2.5 had a significantly reduced risk of developing cognitive impairment (HR = 0.428, 95% CI: 0.303–0.605). The results from the stratified analysis revealed that the detrimental effect of PM2.5 on cognition was more pronounced in participants without HCBSs (HR = 3.44, 95% CI: 2.18–5.41) compared with those with HCBSs (HR = 1.42, 95% CI: 0.77–2.61). HCBSs may attenuate the harmful impact of PM2.5 on cognitive status in the elderly Chinese and the government should further promote the application of HCBSs.
11. Snapshots of wintertime urban aerosol characteristics: Local sources emphasized in ultrafine particle number and lung deposited surface area
Environmental Research, Volume 231, Part 1, 15 August 2023, 116068
Urban air fine particles are a major health-relating problem. However, it is not well understood how the health-relevant features of fine particles should be monitored. Limitations of PM2.5 (mass concentration of sub 2.5 μm particles), which is commonly used in the health effect estimations, have been recognized and, e.g., World Health Organization (WHO) has released good practice statements for particle number (PN) and black carbon (BC) concentrations (2021). In this study, a characterization of urban wintertime aerosol was done in three environments: a detached housing area with residential wood combustion, traffic-influenced streets in a city centre and near an airport. The particle characteristics varied significantly between the locations, resulting different average particle sizes causing lung deposited surface area (LDSA). Near the airport, departing planes had a major contribution on PN, and most particles were smaller than 10 nm, similarly as in the city centre. The high hourly mean PN (>20 000 1/cm3) stated in the WHO’s good practices was clearly exceeded near the airport and in the city centre, even though traffic rates were reduced due to a SARS-CoV-2-related partial lockdown. In the residential area, wood combustion increased both BC and PM2.5, but also PN of sub 10 and 23 nm particles. The high concentrations of sub 10 nm particles in all the locations show the importance of the chosen lower size limit of PN measurement, e.g., WHO states that the lower limit should be 10 nm or smaller. Furthermore, due to ultrafine particle emissions, LDSA per unit PM2.5 was 1.4 and 2.4 times higher near the airport than in the city centre and the residential area, respectively, indicating that health effects of PM2.5 depend on urban environment as well as conditions, and emphasizing the importance of PN monitoring in terms of health effects related to local pollution sources.
12. Towards sustainable and net-zero cities: A review of environmental modelling and monitoring tools for optimizing emissions reduction strategies for improved air quality in urban areas
Environmental Research, Volume 231, Part 3, 15 August 2023, 116242
Climate change is a defining challenge for today’s society and its consequences pose a great threat to humanity. Cities are major contributors to climate change, accounting for over 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions. With urbanization occurring at a rapid rate worldwide, cities will play a key role in mitigating emissions and addressing climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions are strongly interlinked with air quality as they share emission sources. Consequently, there is a great opportunity to develop policies which maximize the co-benefits of emissions reductions on air quality and health. As such, a narrative meta-review is conducted to highlight state-of-the-art monitoring and modelling tools which can inform and monitor progress towards greenhouse gas emission and air pollution reduction targets. Urban greenspace will play an important role in the transition to net-zero as it promotes sustainable and active transport modes. Therefore, we explore advancements in urban greenspace quantification methods which can aid strategic developments. There is great potential to harness technological advancements to better understand the impact of greenhouse gas reduction strategies on air quality and subsequently inform the optimal design of these strategies going forward. An integrated approach to greenhouse gas emission and air pollution reduction will create sustainable, net-zero and healthy future cities.
13. Insights into the adsorption of CO2 generated from synthetic urban wastewater treatment on olive pomace biochar
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 339, 1 August 2023, 117951
In this investigation, a sustainable and low-cost method to capture CO2 generated from the treatment of urban wastewater was evaluated. We studied the adsorption of CO2 on olive pomace biochar. The experiments of degradation of synthetic wastewater mimicking effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with an initial Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentration of 10 mg L−1 were conducted by using the UV-C/H2O2 process in the absence or presence of biochar. The biochar was placed in a fixed bed column through which air from the UV reactor was circulated. First, the effects of different parameters such as H2O2 initial concentration and pH on wastewater mineralization efficiency were determined. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal was 87% in 2 h under optimal degradation conditions. The maximal concentration of CO2(gas) in air, in a closed system (air volume: 7.3 10−4 m3), after 11 h was 12,500 μmol mol−1 in the absence of biochar and only 150 μmol mol−1 when 10 g biochar were used. The results proved that by combining biochar with oxidative degradation of organic compounds, it is possible to mineralize organic compounds and reduce the requisite CO2 emissions by about 99%. The experimental equilibrium results were fit well with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms models concluding that CO2 adsorption on biochar followed both chemisorption and physisorption and both monolayer and multi-layer CO2 adsorption could occur. The total desorption of CO2 from biochar was reached in 120 min by simultaneously increasing the temperature to 150 °C and introducing a purge N2(gas).
14. Does environmental regulation narrow the north-south economic gap ? – Empirical evidence based on panel data of 285 prefecture-level cities
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 340, 15 August 2023, 117849
The economic differentiation between the north and the south of China, as a long-standing phenomenon of unbalanced regional economic development, is aggravating, and has gradually become a resistance to the construction of a new development pattern and regional coordinated development. Most of the existing studies focus on the comparison of differences between the Eastern, Central and Western regions of China, but there is little discussion on the economic gap between China’s North-South economy. In addition, through the literature review, no attention has been paid to the environmental regulation factor that leads to the economic gap between the North and the South. In view of this, the study constructs a benchmark regression model and a non-linear regression model based on the balanced panel data of 285 cities in China from 2004 to 2019, explores the role that environmental regulation plays in the widening of China’s North-South economy gap. The results show that, firstly, environmental regulation is significantly conducive to narrowing the economic gap between the North and the South; In addition, with the greater intensity of environmental regulation, the economic gap shows a trend of “narrowing first, expanding then”, that is, There exists positive U-shaped nonlinear relationship between them. Finally, the heterogeneity of urban scale leads to significant differences in the position and shape of the positive U-shaped curve, which exists between environmental regulation and China’s North-South economy gap. The test results shows that the inflection point level of the U-shaped curve in the North is higher than that in the South. Based on this, the study proposes to adjust environmental policies accordingly under regional differentiated conditions, increase financial investment in improving environmental regulation tools and promote coordinated environmental governance in the North and South regions, to promote regional coordinated and sustainable development, provide empirical evidence and theoretical reference to improve people’s livelihood and well-being and ultimately achieve the goal of common prosperity.
15. Impact of the clean energy structure of building operation on the co-benefits of CO2 and air pollutant emission reductions in Chinese provinces
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 413, 10 August 2023, 137400
Energy consumption in the building sector is an essential source of CO2 and air pollution. Identifying the impact of changes in the energy structure on emission trends is the basis of scientific control measures. However, the co-benefits of CO2 and air pollutant emission reductions generated by the change in energy structure for different building types in China are still unknown. Using the cases of 30 provincial regions in China, based on detailed local electricity, heat, and household energy consumption data and emission factors, we established provincial CO2 and air pollutant emissions from building operations during 2016–2020. The impact of changes in the energy structure on the co-benefits of air pollutants emission reduction was investigated. Results showed that in 2020, building operation energy consumption in China was 610 Mtce. CO2 emissions were 2.53 Gt, and emissions of PM2.5, SO2, and NOX were 0.18, 0.38, and 0.48 Mt, respectively. From 2016 to 2020, urban public buildings contributed the highest to CO2 and air pollutant emissions. The CO2, PM2.5, SO2, and NOX indirect emissions of electricity increased by 52.3, 46.0, 45.2, and 52.5%, respectively. In 2020, the co-benefits of PM2.5 and SO2 emission reduction from the clean energy structure of building operations were higher than that of NOX emission reduction, and the value of comprehensive co-benefits of air pollutants was 1.5. This work fills the gap in the evaluation of the co-benefits of air pollutants with low-carbon energy for different building types, and the crucial sub-sectors in each region with high co-benefits have been picked out.
16. Surfactant-assisted air flotation: A novel approach for the removal of microplastics from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 884, 1 August 2023, 163841
The potential for the presence of microplastics (MPs) in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI-BA) has not been fully explored. In this study, surfactant-assisted air flotation separation in aqueous media was used to examine the removal of MPs and other pollutants from different particle size fractions of MSWI-BA. The use of 1 mmol L−1 sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), at a liquid-solid ratio of 60:1, increased by 66 % the quantity of MPs floated from the MSWI-BA 0–0.3 mm fraction, as compared to pure water. The four most common shapes of the floated MPs were pellets, fragments, films and fibers, and the major polymers were polypropylene, polyethylene, polymethyl methacrylate, and polystyrene (approximately 450 μg g−1 BA). The flotation of <10 μm MPs increased by up to 7 % using this method compared to flotation in saturated NaCl solution. Reuse of the flotation solution with the SDBS concentration maintained resulted in reduced MPs removal abundance by 22 % in the fourth use as compared to the first use. MPs removal correlated positively to SDBS concentration and negatively to turbidity. Precipitation from the fourth flotation solution was evaluated using polyacrylamide (PAM) and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) for the purpose of promoting the regeneration and recycling of the flotation solution. This treatment reduced MPs abundance, turbidity, and potential heavy metals in the recycled flotation solution. It is estimated that 3.4 kg of MPs could be removed from each ton of MSWI-BA. The findings of this study contribute to a better understanding of the redistribution of MPs during MSWI-BA pre-use treatment and provides a reference for the practical application of surfactant-assisted air flotation separation.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Design of biomass-based N, S co-doped porous carbon via a straightforward post-treatment strategy for enhanced CO2 capture performance
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 884, 1 August 2023, 163750
Biomass-based adsorbents are considered to have great potential for CO2 capture due to their low cost, high efficiency and exceptional sustainability. The aim of this work is to design a simple method for preparing biomass-based adsorbents with abundant active sites and large numbers of narrow micropores, so as to enhance CO2 capture performance. Herein, N, S co-doped porous carbon (NSPC) was created utilizing walnut shell-based microporous carbon (WSMC) as the main framework and thiourea as N/S dopant through physical grinding and post-treatment process at a moderate temperature without any other reagents and steps. By altering the post-treatment parameters, a series of porous carbons with varying physico-chemical properties were prepared to discuss the roles of microporosity and N/S functional groups in CO2 adsorption. NSPC with narrow micropore volume of 0.74 cm3 g−1, N content of 4.89 % and S contents of 0.71 % demonstrated the highest CO2 adsorption capacity of 7.26 (0 °C) and 5.51 mmol g−1 (25 °C) at 1 bar. Meanwhile, a good selectivity of binary gas mixture CO2/N2 (15/85) of 29.72 and outstanding recyclability after ten cycles of almost 100 % adsorption capacity retention were achieved. The proposed post-treatment method was beneficial in maintaining the narrow micropores and forming N/S active sites, which together improve the CO2 adsorption performance of NSPC. The novel NSPC displays amazing CO2 adsorption characteristics, and the practical, affordable synthetic approach exhibits significant potential to produce highly effective CO2 adsorbents on a broad scale.
2. Waste-to-chemicals: Green solutions for bioeconomy markets
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 887, 20 August 2023, 164006
In the fast-developing time, the accumulation of waste materials is always in an uptrend due to population increases and industrialization. This excessive accumulation in waste materials harms the ecosystem and human beings by depleting water quality, air quality, and biodiversity. Further, by use of fossil fuel problem-related global warming, greenhouse gases are the major challenge in front of the world. Nowadays, scientists and researchers are more focused on recycling and utilizing different waste materials like a municipal solid waste (MSW), agro-industrial waste etc. The waste materials added to the environment are converted into valuable products or green chemicals using green chemistry principles. These fields are the production of energy, synthesis of biofertilizers and use in the textile industry to fulfil the need of the present world. Here we need more focus on the circular economy considering the value of products in the bioeconomic market. For this purpose, sustainable development of the circular bio-economy is the most promising alternative, which is possible by incorporating the latest techniques like microwave-based extraction, enzyme immobilization-based removal, bioreactor-based removal etc., for the valorization of food waste materials. Further, the conversion of organic waste into valuable products like biofertilizers and vermicomposting is also realised by using earthworms. The present review article focuses on the various types of waste materials (such as MSW, agricultural, industrial, household waste, etc.), waste management with current glitches and the expected solutions that have been discussed. Furthermore, we have highlighted their safe conversion into green chemicals and contribution to the bioeconomic market. The role of the circular economy is also discussed.
3. The energy conservation and emission reduction potentials in China’s iron and steel industry: Considering the uncertainty factor
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 413, 10 August 2023, 137519
Energy conservation and emission reduction in China’s iron and steel industry are crucial for mitigating its environmental pressures. However, uncertainties raise significant management risks when setting energy conservation and emission reduction pathways. Therefore, this paper explores the energy conservation and emission reduction potential in China’s iron and steel industry. A 10,000-time Latin hypercube sampling is conducted to simulate the distribution of five types of uncertain factors. In addition, this study uses a Sobol’ sensitivity analysis method to recognize the most sensitive factor, and, in specific, analyzes the cost-effectiveness of the technologies via conservation supply curve. The results show that: (1) The uncertainty factors lead to significant fluctuate to the results. In particular, energy conservation will fluctuate by 18.24–40.77%, carbon mitigation by 28.96–55.34%, and SO2, NOx and PM mitigation effects will fluctuate by 48.32–79.53%, 22.12–51.77% and 23.92–50.03%, respectively. (2) Structure and equipment parameters are more the most sensitive to energy conservation and carbon mitigation targets, whose Sobol’ indices are beyond 0.45. End-of-pipe treatment technologies are more the most sensitive to SO2 and PM reduction targets with Sobol’ indices above 0.9. Penetration rates and equipment parameters are more the most sensitive to economic cost targets above 0.8. (3) In 2035, 33 energy conservation technologies and 34 emission reduction technologies will be cost-effective, and they can achieve 69.05–70.14% of energy conservation and 79.03–81.58% of emission reduction potentials, respectively. Based on these findings, this study proposes policy recommendations such as changing the raw material/product structure, upgrading equipment, cooperating actively, and introducing economic incentives and guidelines for technology application.
4. Which industrial path contributed to CO2 transfer and emissions slowing-down of China and the United States most in international trade?
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 413, 10 August 2023, 137429
Carbon transfer in international trade has triggered disputes on environmental equity between developed and developing countries. Hence, it is urgent to make it clear the carbon transfer process of international trade between China and the United States, explore the adjustment plan of emission reduction responsibility and formulate targeted emission reduction measures. These will play an important leading and demonstration effect in addressing global warming and coordinating international carbon reduction. This study built a CO2 international trade transfer network model of China and the United States. Based on identifying the carbon transfer path flowing from primary product sector to final production sector, and then to final consumption, we analyzed the industrial association relationship and distribution differences between China and the United States with external countries and regions. Lastly, we put forward emission reduction policy implication in industrial scale. The key paths of China and the United States are concentrated in the two export and import transfer types respectively. Among the key paths of China’s bilateral primary production export type, paths from domestic Electricity, Gas and Water to foreign Construction accounted for the largest 40% share. As for the United States, transfer type of bilateral final production import is the most prominent, and path number and flow from foreign Transport to domestic Public Administration both accounted for more than 30%. Based on shared responsibility to adjust the emission reduction tasks under the Paris Agreement, China and the US will allow to emit 10% more and reduce 6% more, reaching 54% and 25% respectively. Taking into full consideration the national economic development level and the differences in the production technology level of industrial sectors, as well as the upstream and downstream related sectors’ relationship, the refined emission reduction strategy is proposed from different aspects, such as technical assistance, financial support, import control, technology sharing and consumption transformation.
5. Increasing volatile organic compounds emission from massive industrial coating consumption require more comprehensive prevention
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 414, 15 August 2023, 137459
Coating is an important raw material in industrial production. Global consumption of industrial coatings has approximated 28.84 Tg in 2019, with China accounting for more than half which generated plenty of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). To learn the pollution characteristic and prevention strategy, we estimated the speciated VOCs emission of coating-consuming industries in China through field investigation, sample collection and analytical analysis. The environmental and health influences in 2019, 2025 and 2030 were then assessed based on scenario prediction with taking low-VOCs containing coating (LCC) application into consideration which was an important action in the ongoing prevention measures. Ozone formation potential (OFP), secondary organic aerosol potential (SOAP) and the newly established index of total health risks (THR) were employed toindicate the environmental influence and health threaten. Conclusions showed that (1) VOCs emissions wouldincrease from 6.78 Tg to 10.46 Tg during 2019–2030 which result in a much higher OFP, SOAP and THR. (2)
Replacing traditional organic coating (TOC) with LCC could effectively reduce VOCs emission. For every 1% increase in LCC proportion, VOCs emission, OFPs, SOAPs, and THRs decreased by 1.24%, 1.44%, 1.49%, and 1.70% on average, respectively. (3) Potential O3 and SOA yields approximated 25.61 Tg and 19.12 Tg (5.87% and 4.39% higher than 2019) even in the most stringent scenario for 2030 which meant continuous increases in industrial coating consumption could offset the positive effects produced by LCC substitution. (4) Esters, ethers, alcohols, and ketones are proposed as main composition of coatings to effectively reduce VOCs emission and their influence on account of better technical accessibility. These findings reveal that more innovative pollution prevention methods and production technologies are urgently needed to compensate for increased pollutant emissions derived from the growing demand for coating-associated commodities.
6. Safer and effective alternatives to perfluoroalkyl-based surfactants in etching solutions for the semiconductor industry
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 415, 20 August 2023, 137879
Surfactants based on poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as Fluoroalkyl sulfonamide, fluoroalkyl sulfonyl amino propane sulfonic acid, and potassium perfluorooctane sulfonate surfactants are widely used in etching solutions in the semiconductor industry to improve the wetting characteristics of the etchant and substrates.
Their excellent stability in strongly acidic, alkaline, and oxidizing etching solutions such as Tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH), perchloric acid/ceric ammonium nitrate aqueous solution (chrome), ammonium hydrogen fluoride solution, or buffered oxide etchant (BOE) and a mixture of phosphoric, acetic, and nitric acid etchant (PAN), has warranted their continuous use as a surfactant.
The toxicity and extremely high persistence of PFAS necessitate their replacement with less toxic and effective alternative surfactants.
A generic methodology is described for the identification of safer alternative surfactants and the experimental validation of properties to facilitate the drop-in replacement of these safer surfactants in etching solutions for the semiconductor industry. Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) values, critical micelle concentration (CMC), compatibility, and wetting characteristics of etchants were analyzed on substrates relevant to the semiconductor industry.
Biobased BG10 alternative surfactant outperformed PFAS surfactant in improving the wetting characteristics of the TMAH etchant on substrates of interest as evidenced by the significantly lower contact angle. The wetting characteristics of the PAN and BOE etchants containing BG10 and CG50 surfactants were comparable to PFAS surfactants.
Toxicity comparisons indicated that these alternatives are far less hazardous to human health than PFAS. These safer alternatives have been tested successfully by over 100 semiconductor companies. These companies have provided positive feedback with no reported deleterious effects on the final products. This successful approach opens new possibilities for the replacement of PFAS in numerous other applications where PFAS is commonly used as a surfactant. Using this methodology, alkyl polyglucosides with trade names BG10 and CG50 and polyoxyethylene surfactants of Brij35 and BrijS100 were identified as alternatives to PFAS surfactants.
7. Green financing strategy for low-carbon economy: The role of high-technology imports and institutional strengths in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 415, 20 August 2023, 137859
Extreme environmental events surging across the globe are the consequences of the human’s race for attaining rapid economic growth driven by cheap energy sources. However, the consequences of such achievements are far beyond the benefits of the growth which severely affect environmental quality resulting in the rise of average global temperature, and various factors linked with changing climate. The current analysis takes into account a panel of Chinese provincial data from 2000 to 2020 to empirically examine the impact and the magnitude of GDP, renewable energy, imports of high technology, green financing strategies, and quality of institutions on the provincial emissions of carbon in China. The panel is tested for several diagnostic tests and a long-run cointegrating connection is confirmed among the factors under examination. The advanced technique of Method of Moment Quantiles Regression (MMQREG) confirms that GDP is detrimental, whereas, renewable energy, green finance, import of high technology, and institutional quality depict heterogenous impacts on carbon emissions. Furthermore, the robustness check of the Augmented Mean Group, Fully-Modified Ordinary Least Square (FMOLS) and Dynamic Ordinary Least Square (DOLS) validates and supports the earlier findings of MMQREG. Based on the outcomes it is revealed that except for the GDP, the explanatory factors effectively cut provincial carbon emissions in China, nevertheless, the magnitude of the green financing strategies raised a valid question which depicts a decreasing trend across the quantiles. According to the findings, it is proposed that the country should first prioritize green and sustainable finance and upgrade the domestic industrial technology with the help of import of high-technology that will relive burden on the environmental quality. Secondly, quality institutions will play an important role in coordination among various green financial institutes that will further maximize the gain from deployment of renewable energy sources.
8. The impact of VAT tax sharing on industrial pollution in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 415, 20 August 2023, 137926
Contrary to the Chinese central government’s strong encouragement of green development, the initiative of local governments in pollution control remains inefficient. This phenomena may be associated with Chinese special tax sharing system. Based on the practice of China’s sub-provincial fiscal system reform from 2003 to 2020, this paper examines the impact of sub-provincial revenue share on industrial pollution at the prefecture level, and explores the influence of fiscal incentives caused by VAT tax sharing on local government decision-making. First, we study the effect of VAT tax sharing on industrial pollution through fixed effect model. We find that the increase in VAT tax sharing promotes environmental pollution, especially in the central and western regions. In addition, we analyze the moderating effects of industrialization and government competition on the industrial pollution effect of VAT tax sharing. The results show that the degree of regional industrialization strengthens the pollution effect caused by the increase of VAT sharing, while the government competition weakens the effect. Based on these findings, we also employ the panel threshold model to investigate the nonlinear effects of VAT tax sharing and industrial pollution. Only when the proportion of VAT tax sharing exceeds the threshold value will it have an impact on industrial pollution. This study provides enrich empirical evidence for the successive problems of extreme environmental pollution from the perspective of fiscal revenue decentralization, which is of practical importance for improving tax sharing system and enhancing pollution control efficiency.
9. Simultaneous photocatalytic removal of organic dye and heavy metal from textile wastewater over N-doped TiO2 on reduced graphene oxide
Chemosphere, Volume 332, August 2023, 138882
Methylene blue (MB) and hexavalent chromium(Cr(VI)) are hazardous pollutants in textile waste and cannot be completely removed using conventional methods. So far, there have been no specific studies examining the synthesis and activity of N–TiO2/rGO as a photocatalyst for removing MB and Cr(VI) from textile wastewater. This work especially highlights the synthesis of N–TiO2/rGO as a photocatalyst which exhibits a wider range of light absorption and is highly effective for simultaneous removal of MB-Cr(VI) under visible light. Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) was used as the precursor for N–TiO2 synthesis using the sol-gel method. Graphite was oxidized using Hummer’s method and reduced with hydrazine to produce rGO. N–TiO2/rGO was synthesized using a hydrothermal process and then analyzed using several characterization instruments. The X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) showed that the anatase N–TiO2/rGO phase was detected at the diffraction peak of 2θ = 25.61. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (SEM-EDS and TEM) dispersive X-ray spectrometry images show that N–TiO2 particles adhere to the surface of rGO with uniform size and N and Ti elements are present in the N–TiO2/rGO combined investigated. Gas absorption analysis data (GSA) shows that N–TiO2/rGO had a surface area of 77.449 m2/g, a pore volume of 0.335 cc/g, and a pore size of 8.655 nm. The thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) curve showed the anatase phase at 500–780 °C with a weight loss of 0.85%. The N–TiO2/rGO composite showed a good photocatalyst application. The photocatalytic activity of N–TiO2/rGO for textile wastewater treatment under visible light showed higher effectiveness than ultraviolet light, with 97.92% for MB and 97.48% for Cr(VI). Combining N–TiO2 with rGO is proven to increase the light coverage in the visible light region. Removal of MB and Cr(VI) can be carried out simultaneously and results in a removal efficiency of 95.96%.
10. Potential of technological innovation to reduce the carbon footprint of urban facility agriculture: A food–energy–water–waste nexus perspective
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 339, 1 August 2023, 117806
As an emerging form of agriculture, urban facility agriculture is an important supplement to traditional agriculture and one of the ways to alleviate the urban food crisis, but it may generate a high carbon footprint. A comprehensive assessment of urban facility agriculture is a necessity for promoting its low-carbon development. In this study, the carbon footprint of urban facility agriculture under four different technological innovation models was simulated by life cycle assessment and a system dynamics model for a carbon footprint accounting without considering economic risk. Case 1, as the basic case, is Household farm facility agriculture. Case 2 is the introduction of vertical hydroponic technology based on Case 1, Case 3 is the introduction of distributed hybrid renewable energy micro-grid technology based on Case 2, and Case 4 is the introduction of automatic composting technology based on Case 3. These four cases demonstrate the gradual optimization of the food–energy–water–waste nexus in urban facility agriculture. This study further uses the system dynamics model for carbon reduction potential considering economic risk to simulate the diffusion (promotion) scale and carbon reduction potential of different technological innovations. Research results show that with the superposition of technologies, the carbon footprint per unit land area is gradually reduced, and the carbon footprint of Case 4 is the lowest at 4.78e+06 kg CO2eq. However, the gradual superposition of technologies will further limit the diffusion scale of technological innovation, thereby reducing the carbon reduction potential of technological innovation. In Chongming District, Shanghai, under theoretical circumstances, the carbon reduction potential of Case 4 is the highest at 1.6e+09 kg CO2eq, but the actual carbon reduction potential is only 1.8e+07 kg CO2eq due to excessive economic risks. By contrast, the actual carbon reduction potential of Case 2 is the highest with 9.6e+08 kg CO2eq. To fully achieve the carbon reduction potential of technology innovation, it is necessary to promote the scale diffusion of Urban facility agricultural technology innovation by raising the sales price of agricultural products and the grid connection price of renewable electricity.
11. Small but irreplaceable: The conservation value of landscape remnants for urban plant diversity
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 339, 1 August 2023, 117907
The widespread decline of biodiversity due to increasing urban development raises the need to timely identify areas most relevant to the conservation of native species, particularly within cities where natural areas are extremely limited. Here, we assess the multiple role of local geomorphological features in shaping patterns and dynamics of plant diversity, with the aim of identifying conservation values and priorities in an urbanised area of Southern Italy. Based on recent and historical lists of vascular plants, we compared the floristic composition of different portions of the area by considering species’ conservation value, ecological and biogeographical traits. We found that landscape remnants, accounting for 5% of the study area, harbour over 85% of the whole plant diversity and a considerable set of exclusive species. Results of Generalised Linear Mixed Models show an outstanding role of landscape remnants for the conservation of native, rare and specialised species. Based on the compositional similarities among sampled sites resulting from hierarchical clustering, these linear landscape elements also play a key role in maintaining the floristic continuity and potential connectivity throughout the urban landscape. By comparing current biodiversity patterns with data from the early XX century, we also show that the considered landscape elements are significantly more likely to host populations of declining native species, underlining their role as refugia against past and future extinctions. Taken together, our findings represent an effective framework to tackle the challenging conservation of nature in cities, namely providing a valuable approach for the identification of priority areas for the conservation of diversity within anthropogenic landscapes.
12. Remedial effect and operating status of a decommissioned uranium mill tailings (UMT) repository: A micro-ecological perspective based on bacterial community
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 340, 15 August 2023, 117993
From a radioecological perspective, increasing attention has been paid to the long-term stabilisation of decommissioned uranium mill tailings (UMT) repositories. However, little is known about the evaluation of decommissioning and remedial effects of UMT repositories from a microecological perspective based on bacterial communities. Here, we analysed the distribution and structure of soil community assemblies along different vertical soil profiles in a decommissioned UMT repository and explored the impact of soil properties, including physicochemical parameters, metal(loid)s, and radionuclides, on the bacterial assemblage. We found that the α diversity of the bacterial community was unaffected by variations in different soil profiles and taxa were classified at the phylum level with small significant differences. In contrast, the bacterial community structure in and around the UMT repository showed significant differences; however, this difference was significantly affected by soil metal(loid)s and physicochemical properties rather than soil radionuclides. In addition, seven bacterial genera with significant differences between the inner and surrounding regions of the repository could be used as potential indicators to further investigate the remedial effects on soil environmental quality. These findings provide novel insights into the construction of an assessment system and in situ biomonitoring of UMT repositories from a microecological perspective based on bacterial communities.
13. The impact of green technology innovation on carbon dioxide emissions: The role of local environmental regulations
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 340, 15 August 2023, 117990
Environmental pollution has become a global issue attracting ever-increasing attention. Green technology innovation (GTI) is considered an effective strategy in countering this problem and helping achieve sustainability goals. However, the market failure suggests that intervention from the government is necessary to promote the effectiveness of technological innovation and hence, its positive social impacts on emissions reduction. This study investigates how the environmental regulation (ER) influences the relationship between green innovation and CO emissions reduction in China. Employing data from 30 provinces from the period 2003 to 2019, the Panel Fixed-effect model, the Spatial Durbin Model (SDM), the System Generalised Method of Moments (SYS-GMM) and the Difference-In-Difference (DID) models are applied to take issues relating to endogeneity and spatial impact into consideration. The results indicate that environmental regulations positively moderate the impact of green knowledge innovation (GKI) on CO2 emissions reduction but have a much weaker moderation effect when green process innovation (GPI) is considered. Among different types of regulatory instruments, investment-based regulation (IER) is the most effective in promoting the relationship between green innovation and emissions reduction, followed by command-and-control-based regulation (CER). Expenditure-based regulation (EER) is less effective and can encourage short-termism and opportunistic behaviour among firms, who can accept the paying of fines as a cheaper cost over the short-term than investment in green innovation. Moreover, the spatial of green technological innovation on carbon emissions in neighbouring regions is confirmed, in particular when IER and CER are implemented. Lastly, the heterogeneity issue is further examined by considering differences in the economic development and the industrial structure across different regions, and the conclusions reached remain robust. This study identifies that the market-based regulatory instrument, IER, works best in promoting green innovation and emissions reduction among Chinese firms. It also encourages GKI which may assist firms in achieving long-term sustained growth. The study recommends further development of the green finance system to maximise the positive impact of this policy instrument.
14. The moderating effect of clean technology innovation in the process of environmental regulation affecting employment: Panel data analysis based on 22 industrial sectors in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 414, 15 August 2023, 137672
China facing the challenge of coordinated development of “ecology, economy, and well-being”. Scholars have conducted some research on the relationship between enviromental regulation and employment, but there is less research on the role of clean technology innovation in the employment effect of environmental regulation, which is the purpose of this paper.
Using the panel data of 22 industrial sectors in China, the paper uses the number of clean technology patents to measure the level of clean technology innovation, and examines the moderating effect of clean technology innovation in the employment effect of environmental regulations.
The results show that: (1) With the gradual improvement of environmental regulation, the impact of environmental regulation on employment presents the characteristics of inhibition first and then promotion. (2) Clean technology innovation has a moderating effect on the employment effect of environmental regulation.
It should encourage the green upgrading of traditional technologies, support the development and optimization of private enterprises in various industries, so as to promote enterprises to effectively reduce pollution emissions and create jobs through green technology upgrading at the initial stage.
15. Phosphogypsum circular economy considerations: A critical review from more than 65 storage sites worldwide
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 414, 15 August 2023, 137561
Nearly 300 million t of phosphogypsum (PG) are produced every year as a byproduct from phosphate fertilizer production worldwide. Approximately 58% of the PG are stacked, 28% are discharged in coastal waters and only 14% are further processed. This critical review provides an overview of the physical-chemical properties of PG produced from sedimentary and magmatic phosphate ore worldwide using various analytical tools. Results from more than 25 years of work on PG at École des Mines de Saint-Étienne are presented and critically discussed. In total PG samples from 67 industrial storage sites around the world and PG samples synthesized under different conditions in the laboratory have been considered. The low radioactivity present in PG (particularly PG produced from sedimentary phosphate rock) was identified as the main challenge to using PG as a raw material in construction. Water-soluble and volatile chemical compounds were identified as the main challenge to environmentally sound PG management. Although PG does (in most cases) not pose an immediate threat to the environment the authors recommend processing all PG instead of storing or disposing it, to eliminate potential long-term risks and utilize a relevant secondary resource.
16. Heavy metal accumulation, biochemical and transcriptomic biomarkers in earthworms Eisenia andrei exposed to industrially contaminated soils from south-eastern Tunisia (Gabes Governorate)
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 887, 20 August 2023, 163950
Heavy metal pollution is causing harmful consequences on soil fertility, and earthworms are frequently employed as test organisms to evaluate the ecotoxicity of polluted soils. In this study, Eisenia andrei was exposed for 7 and 14 days to polymetallic contaminated soils collected from an industrial zone in the south-eastern Tunisia. Earthworm growth, heavy metal accumulation, genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, biochemical and transcriptional responses were determined. Results revealed a higher accumulation of heavy metals in earthworms after 14 than 7 days of soil exposure, a reduction in lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), besides an increase in micronuclei frequency (MN). Moreover, earthworm oxidative status was affected in terms of increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and metallothionein (MTs) content, and enhancement of catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. An inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was also observed in treated earthworms, whereas transcriptional data demonstrated an up-regulation of cat, gst, mt, p21 and topoisomerase genes. Overall, these findings support the use of earthworms as suitable bioindicator species for pollution monitoring and assessment, advance our understanding of the interaction between heavy metals and earthworms, and provide valuable information about the harmful impact of biota exposure to naturally contaminated soils.
CHUYÊN TRANG QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam