Trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 31-2023 với những nội dung chính như sau:
Về quản lý môi trường
– Các giải pháp dựa vào thiên nhiên cho các thách thức môi trường toàn cầu.
– Đánh giá rủi ro ngập úng đô thị ứng phó với biến đổi khí hậu và đô thị hóa dựa trên các lộ trình kinh tế – xã hội chung.
– Suy nghĩ lại về lộ trình mô hình quản lý chất thải nhựa bền vững trong tương lai: Bản tóm tắt triển vọng quy mô đa quốc gia.
– Những hiểu biết mới về các chiến lược kiểm soát nitơ trong quá trình nhiệt phân bùn thải hướng tới sự bền vững về môi trường và kinh tế.
– Các công nghệ kỹ thuật số của Công nghiệp 4.0 nâng cao tính bền vững: Các ứng dụng và rào cản từ ngành nông nghiệp trong nền kinh tế mới nổi.
– Quan điểm của người dùng về việc tái sử dụng các sản phẩm xây dựng ở Na Uy: Kết quả của một cuộc khảo sát quốc gia.
– Mối quan hệ giữa nền kinh tế tuần hoàn, vốn cổ phần cộng đồng và các nguồn năng lượng tái tạo: Các doanh nghiệp từ các quốc gia xanh có hoạt động hiệu quả hơn không?
– Hậu quả môi trường của ISO 14001 tại các nền kinh tế châu Âu trong bối cảnh thay đổi cơ cấu và đổi mới công nghệ: Hiểu biết sâu sắc về động lực quản trị xanh.
– Công nghiệp 4.0 với vai trò là nhân tố thúc đẩy các hoạt động kinh tế tuần hoàn: Bằng chứng từ các doanh nghiệp vừa và nhỏ ở Châu Âu.
– Nghiên cứu về tác động giảm nghèo năng lượng của tài chính xanh trong bối cảnh chính sách kinh tế không chắc chắn.
Về môi trường đô thị
– Tác động của các biện pháp hạn chế do COVID-19 đối với việc cá nhân tiếp xúc với VOC và aldehyde ở Thành phố Đài Bắc.
– Một phương pháp truy xuất viễn thám tiên tiến cho các thông số chất lượng nước không hoạt động quang học đô thị: Một ví dụ từ Thượng Hải.
– Sử dụng đất đô thị định hình sự phong phú và đa dạng của vi sinh vật đất.
– Phát triển, hiệu suất và phân tích cộng đồng vi sinh vật của lò phản ứng quang hóa màng sinh học vi tảo-vi khuẩn dòng chảy liên tục để xử lý nước thải đô thị.
– Khó chịu do tiếng ồn giao thông trong nghiên cứu LIFE-người lớn ở Đức: Mối quan hệ tiếp xúc-phản ứng và so sánh với các đường cong của WHO.
– Phân tích trữ lượng vật liệu của đường đô thị từ dữ liệu ánh sáng ban đêm dựa trên cách tiếp cận từ dưới lên.
– Tiếp xúc lâu dài với ô nhiễm không khí dạng hạt ở mức độ thấp và chẩn đoán bệnh Parkinson – Một nghiên cứu dựa trên sổ đăng ký của Phần Lan.
– Phơi nhiễm asen gây tăng đường huyết qua trung gian do tổn thương oxy hóa ở người trưởng thành ở thành thị: Một nghiên cứu đoàn hệ tiền cứu với ba biện pháp lặp lại.
– Môi trường địa phương, đặc điểm bề mặt và các quá trình ngẫu nhiên hình thành động lực học của hệ vi sinh vật bề mặt thùng rác đô thị.
– Đặc trưng cấu trúc thẳng đứng của các tòa nhà trong thành phố để sử dụng trong các mô hình khí quyển.
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
– Đánh giá mức độ và nguồn vi nhựa và este axit phthalic và mối quan hệ của chúng trong bầu không khí của Gebze, Türkiye công nghiệp hóa và đô thị hóa cao.
– Phơi nhiễm nghề nghiệp của con người với hạt vi nhựa: Một nghiên cứu cắt ngang tại một nhà máy sản xuất sản phẩm nhựa.
– Đánh giá vòng đời trong ngành dầu khí: Một khuôn khổ có hệ thống hướng tới cải thiện hiệu suất môi trường.
– Loại bỏ hiệu quả và thu hồi phốt pho từ nước thải công nghiệp ở dạng vivianite.
– Quá trình oxy hóa persulfate được kích hoạt bằng tia cực tím của thuốc nhuộm antraquinone: Đánh giá động học và độc tính sinh thái.
– Khử cacbon cho ngành công nghiệp xi măng và bê tông: Đánh giá có hệ thống về các hệ thống kỹ thuật xã hội, đổi mới công nghệ và các lựa chọn chính sách.
– Vật liệu dựa trên bismuth được chế tạo sinh học để loại bỏ các chất gây ô nhiễm môi trường mới nổi khỏi nước thải.
– Tái chế lithium và florua từ nước thải LiF từ ngành công nghiệp tổng hợp LiF bằng chiết xuất dung môi.
– Sự xuất hiện và phổ biến của gen kháng kháng sinh và mầm bệnh trong nhà máy xử lý nước thải khu công nghiệp.
– Phân phối dư lượng PAH liên kết và mối tương quan của chúng với cộng đồng vi khuẩn ở các độ sâu khác nhau của đất từ khu vực nhà máy hóa chất bị bỏ hoang.
CHUYÊN TRANG QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam
Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. Nature-based solutions to global environmental challenges
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 880, 1 July 2023, 163227
Nature-based solutions (NBS) supply many ecosystem services key to wellbeing. There is evidence that several ecosystems that serve as NBS (e.g., forests) are being threatened by land use and climate change. Urban expansion and agriculture intensification is imposing an extensive degradation in several ecosystems, increasing human vulnerability to climate change-related events. Therefore, it is key to rethink how to develop strategies that minimize these effects. Halt ecosystem degradation and establishing NBS in areas of high human pressure (e.g., urban and agriculture) is essential to reduce environmental impacts. Numerous NBS can be helpful in agriculture (e.g., retention of crop residues/mulching) to reduce erosion or diffuse pollution or in urban areas (e.g., urban green spaces) to mitigate urban heat island effects or floods. Although these measures are important, it is crucial to raise awareness among the stakeholders, assess case by case and minimize the tradeoffs associated with the NBS application (e.g., area needed). Overall, NBS are vital in addressing present and future global environmental challenges.
2. Assessing urban flooding risk in response to climate change and urbanization based on shared socio-economic pathways
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 880, 1 July 2023, 163470
Global climate change and rapid urbanization, mainly driven by anthropogenic activities, lead to urban flood vulnerability and uncertainty in sustainable stormwater management. This study projected the temporal and spatial variation in urban flood susceptibility during the period 2020–2050 on the basis of shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). A case study in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) was conducted for verifying the feasibility and applicability of this approach. GBA is predicted to encounter the increase in extreme precipitation with high intensity and frequency, along with rapid expansion of constructed areas, resulting in exacerbating of urban flood susceptibility. The areas with medium and high flood susceptibility will be expected to increase continuously from 2020 to 2050, by 9.5 %, 12.0 %, and 14.4 % under SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, and SSP5-8.5 scenarios, respectively. In terms of the assessment of spatial-temporal flooding pattern, the areas with high flood susceptibility are overlapped with that in the populated urban center in GBA, surrounding the existing risk areas, which is consistent with the tendency of construction land expansion. The approach in the present study will provide comprehensive insights into the reliable and accurate assessment of urban flooding susceptibility in response to climate change and urbanization.
3. Rethinking of the future sustainable paradigm roadmap for plastic waste management: A multi-nation scale outlook compendium
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 881, 10 July 2023, 163458
The myriad consumption of plastic regularly, environmental impact and health disquietude of humans are at high risk. Along the line, international cooperation on a global scale is epitomized to mitigate the environmental threats from plastic usage, not limited to implementing international cooperation strategies and policies. Here, this study aims to provide explicit insight into possible cooperation strategies between countries on the post-treatment and management of plastic. First, a thorough cradle-to-grave assessment in terms of economic, environmental, and energy requirements is conducted on the entire life cycle across different types of plastic polymers in 6 main countries, namely the United States of America, China, Germany, Japan, South Korea, and Malaysia. Subsequently, P-graph is introduced to identify the integrative plastic waste treatment scheme that minimizes the economic, environmental, and energy criteria (1000 sets of solutions are found). Furthermore, TOPSIS analysis is also being adapted to search for a propitious solution with optimal balance between the dominant configuration of economic, environmental, and energy nexus. The most sustainable configuration (i.e., integrated downcycle and reuse routes in a closed loop system except in South Korea, which proposed another alternative to treat the plastic waste using landfill given the cheaper cost) is reported with 4.08 × 108 USD/yr, 1.76× 108 kg CO2/yr, and 2.73 × 109 MJ/yr respectively. To attain a high precision result, Monte-Carlo simulation is introduced (10,000 attempts) to search for possible uncertainties, and lastly, a potential global plastic waste management scheme is proposed via the PESTLE approach.
4. New insights into nitrogen control strategies in sewage sludge pyrolysis toward environmental and economic sustainability
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 882, 15 July 2023, 163326
Sewage sludge (SS) contains a certain amount of nitrogen (N), resulting in various content of N in the pyrolysis products. Investigates on how to control the generation of NH3 and HCN (deleterious gas-N species) or convert it to N2 and maximize transforming N in sewage sludge (SS-N) into potentially valuable N-containing products (such as char-N and/or liquid-N) are of great significance for SS management. Understanding the nitrogen migration and transformation (NMT) mechanisms in SS during the pyrolysis process is essential for investigating the aforementioned issues. Therefore, in this review, the N content and species in SS are summarized, and the influencing factors during the SS pyrolysis process (such as temperature, minerals, atmosphere, and heating rate) that affect NMT in char, gas, and liquid products are analyzed. Furthermore, N control strategies in SS pyrolysis products are proposed toward environmental and economic sustainability. Finally, the state-of-the-art of current research and future prospects are summarized, with a focus on the generation of value-added liquid-N and char-N products, while concurrently reducing NOx emission.
5. LCA of the NZEB El Salvador building, a model to estimate the carbon footprint in a tropical country
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 408, 1 July 2023, 137137
Life cycle assessment (LCA) in buildings is an objective process that evaluates the environmental burdens generated by their entire life cycle. In this way, it works as feedback to the building design and construction process, highlighting better choices of materials and construction systems, when evaluating decarbonization strategies. This article summarizes the findings from the implementation of an LCA in a net zero energy building (NZEB) located in El Salvador, Central America, on the campus of the Central American University. The assessment determined the carbon and energy impacts generated by the building, with an emphasis on its construction systems, throughout the life cycle. Two LCA methodologies were applied. The first one was a simulation by means of the SimaPro 9 software faculty version and the Ecoinvent database, under the cradle-to-grave approach. The second one was a calculation aided by an interactive table created by Bath University, United Kingdom, which is based upon the Carbon and Energy Inventory (ICE) utilized for calculating buildings’ built-in impacts under the cradle-to-gate approach.
The main results highlight the importance of using renewable energy as a building’s energy source, to avoid and compensate for impacts generated by other stages of the life cycle, for instance, the stage of raw materials extraction and final materials production, which generate the most significant impacts, from both the energy and carbon equivalent perspectives. Therefore, materials selection becomes crucial for reducing or avoiding impacts within a building’s structure throughout its useful life. Also, applying circular economy principles through the reuse and recycling of materials is fundamental to minimizing the life cycle impact of a building in this context.
6. Industry 4.0 digital technologies enhancing sustainability: Applications and barriers from the agricultural industry in an emerging economy
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 408, 1 July 2023, 137208
Digital technologies are powerful innovations that can enhance operational improvements and social and environmental sustainability. This phenomen is amplified for developing countries characterised by agricultural-centered economies. The need of understanding impacts, benefits and obstacles of implementing digital technologies is crucial for the economy, the environment and the society of those countries and for the entire planet. Hence, this study provides a detailed understanding of the benefits of Industry 4.0 technology in the agricultural industry and the barriers that might impede its wider adoption. First, A qualitative research was conducted through an exploratory single case study, analysing different business units of a multinational firm to discover the application of digital technologies and relative barriers in a developing country. Then, through a quantitative approach, barriers were clustered, rated and ranked. The study highlights digital technologies’ social and environmental impacts in optimising operations and resource use. Findings reveal that drones, Internet of Things sensors, Cloud, and Big Data analytics are among the most beneficial technologies in the agricultural industry, while among the most impactful barriers are scarce government support and limited access to foreign markets, followed by economic, technological, and cultural barriers.
7. User perspectives on reuse of construction products in Norway: Results of a national survey
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 408, 1 July 2023, 137067
Construction industry is one of the main contributors to the world’s emissions and material footprints. Reuse of construction products is one way to lower the sector’s embodied emissions and increase resource utilisation. The aim of this study is to identify the main drivers and challenges affecting reuse of construction products as well as assess success factors, reuse potential, and potential measures which should be considered to overcome these obstacles. An online national survey was conducted on reuse of construction products among actors from the Norwegian construction industry. The valid responses obtained from 260 participants show ‘emission reduction’ as the most important driver for reuse of construction products by all user groups. Even if regulatory and economic components were listed under drivers in the survey questions, they were considered as barriers rather than drivers by some of the respondents. All user groups, except suppliers of reused products, rated ‘lack of documentation’ as the most important barrier, and ‘good planning’ as the most important success factor. Suppliers of reused products rated ‘high cost’ and ‘good planning’ as the most challenging and the most important success factor for reuse, respectively. The findings also reveal different perceptions and levels of optimism among actors. Most respondents were optimistic about availability of reusable products (within less than 5 y), but least optimistic about finding cheaper reusable products in the near future (assuming it might take 9 to 17 y). Laws and regulations, testing, documentation and certification, and economic subsidies are mentioned as the top three measures to address the current barriers. Concerning the definition of the term ‘Reuse’, the findings indicate a lack of common understanding – and the need to create a clear description and a harmonised definition. The findings from the study show the need to take several actions to address the current challenges of reuse.
8. Investigating effects of phosphogypsum disposal practices on the environmental performance of phosphate fertilizer production using emergy analysis and carbon emission amounting: A case study from China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 409, 10 July 2023, 137248
The phosphate fertilizer industry faces increasing environmental pressures related to phosphogypsum disposal. It is necessary to explore the impact of different phosphogypsum disposal schemes on the comprehensive performance to promote sustainable development in this industry. We propose a comprehensive approach based on emergy analysis and carbon emission accounting to compare the impacts of different phosphogypsum disposal schemes on phosphate fertilizer production in terms of environmental sustainability, pollutant emission impacts, carbon emission intensity, and their synergistic effects. As a case study, a monoammonium phosphate production enterprise (phosphogypsum storage, Scenario 1) in Hubei Province and three other scenarios based on different phosphogypsum resource utilization practices (Scenario 2: monoammonium phosphate production + phosphogypsum manufacturing building materials; Scenario 3: monoammonium phosphate production + phosphogypsum manufacturing fertilizer filling materials; and Scenario 4: monoammonium phosphate production + phosphogypsum manufacturing cement retarder) were investigated using the proposed approach. The results show that the three phosphogypsum resource utilization practices could enhance the synergistic effect of the integrated system to different degrees relative to Scenario 1 by improving the energy-use efficiency and/or reducing the impact of pollutant emissions. Scenario 3 had the best synergistic effect, followed by scenarios 4, 2, and 1. The three phosphogypsum reuse practices enhanced carbon emission intensity to varying degrees compared with Scenario 1 due to the increasing fossil energy use. Those phosphogypsum reuse practices, based on nonrenewable resources/energy source inputs, caused conflict between waste reduction and carbon emission reduction. This study helps construct an integrated approach for thoroughly investigating the environmental performance of an integrated system consisting of phosphate fertilizer production and phosphogypsum disposal, thus providing a decision-making tool for the phosphate fertilizer industry. We also present targeted decision-making information for phosphate fertilizer production in China.
9. At the nexus of circular economy, equity crowdfunding and renewable energy sources: Are enterprises from green countries more performant?
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 410, 15 July 2023, 136932
Circular economy proposes paradigm shifts from linear production patterns. Entrepreneurs can highly benefit from fresh models driven by industrial symbiosis. In this setting, renewable energy is a prime asset for fostering circular economy and sustainable development. Equity crowdfunding can assist this transition, proposing an array of possibilities for supporting green entrepreneurship. The inquiry at hand is the first exercise linking circular economy, renewable energy and equity crowdfunding. This work tests whether the deal value of an equity-based crowdfunding campaign is higher in countries with renewable energy orientation. It is made use of probit model estimations. One may observe that being a firm from a country consuming large proportions of renewable energy is positively associated with higher crowdfunding performance. Conversely, when a company is located in a country which has large shares/ratios of renewable electricity production, it usually gets modest results when compared to its international competitors. Lower deal values are also attributed to firms situated in countries relying on biomass use. The solidity of the analyses is ensured by robustness tests. The outcomes may elicit policy and research formulation on environmental sustainability and business success at micro/macro levels – of primary importance to illuminate energy, circular economy and ecological transitions.
10. Environmental consequences of ISO 14001 in European economies amidst structural change and technology innovation: Insights from green governance dynamism
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 411, 20 July 2023, 137301
In this last decade, the green growth paradigm has attracted a lot of attention. In addition to protecting the environment and people, green growth also instigates other stringent responsibilities on organizations and governments. Thus, to maintain and protect the environment, organizations must provide support for complex environmental concerns under a governance-enabling regulatory framework. Voluntary environmental initiatives have shown to be an effective strategy for reducing pollution. Through a variety of means, including modifications to procedures, adjustments to raw materials, redesign of products and packaging, and innovations in pollution control technology, these voluntary projects seek to reduce pollution. In order to access this channel within the European countries, we investigate how environmental safeguards are affected by ISO 14001, Structural change, technological innovation, and green Governance. We also took cognizant of spatial inference of environmental pollution using spatial econometric models. According to our econometric findings, (i) obtaining ISO 14001 certification leads to a sizable decrease in carbon emissions in European nations. (ii) The findings indicate spatial agglomeration, and neighbouring nations’ pollution patterns are comparable. Because of the physical agglomeration between nations, nations must work together to combat air pollution and ensure progressive, sustainable development.
11. Risk-return profile of environmentally friendly assets: Evidence from the NASDAQ OMX green economy index family
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 337, 1 July 2023, 117683
The COVID-19 pandemic, geopolitical risks and net-zero targets have created not only pressures but incentives for energy investors. The renewable energy has become the largest energy sector and provided significant investment opportunities. However, companies operating in this sector are highly risky due to economic and political barriers. Therefore, it is of crucial importance for investors to properly assess the risk-return dynamics of these investments. This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of clean energy equities at a disaggregate level using a battery of performance metrics. The main results provide evidence of significant heterogeneity across clean energy sub-sectors; for instance, fuel cell and solar stocks display higher downside risks than the others, while the developer/operator equities are the least risky. The findings further provide evidence of higher risk-adjusted returns during the coronavirus pandemic; as an example, energy management companies appear to provide the highest risk-adjusted returns in the wake of the COVID-19. Comparing the performance with traditional sectors, clean energy stocks outperform certain sectors, including dirty assets. These findings offer important implications for investors, portfolio managers, and policy makers.
12. Industry 4.0 as an enabler of circular economy practices: Evidence from European SMEs
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 410, 15 July 2023, 137281
While firms’ investment in Industry 4.0 and adoption of circular economy practices are seen as indispensable to a sustainable economy, synergies from the interaction of these two received less systematic empirical treatment. These synergies are particularly important in Europe, given that both the digital and the green transitions are Europe’s strategic political priorities, and the “twin” transitions are expected to reinforce each other. By investigating the link between Industry 4.0 technologies and circular economy practices for European SMEs, which have an important place in the European economy and are responsible for a significant amount of waste, this study aims to uncover the potential of digital transition in supporting green transition.
Using the ReSOLVE framework as the conceptual background, this paper examines the effect of Industry 4.0 technologies on SMEs’ circular economy applications among EU countries using firm-level data from SMEs, Start-ups, Scale-ups, and Entrepreneurship (Flash Eurobarometer 486) Survey in 2020. The results of econometric analyses provide evidence of a statistically significant positive effect of Industry 4.0 technologies on circular economy practices. These findings imply that a key policy priority should be to plan to spread Industry 4.0 components to improve and enhance SMEs’ circular economy practices. Overall, the results indicate that Industry 4.0 technologies serve not only Europe’s digital and industrial strategies but also its environmental strategies.
13. Research on the energy poverty reduction effects of green finance in the context of economic policy uncertainty
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 410, 15 July 2023, 137287
Although considerable literature has focused on the energy poverty reduction effects of green finance, the context of economic policy uncertainty has been paid little attention. Based on Chinese provincial panel data from 2004 to 2020, this paper studies the relationship between green finance and energy poverty the using system generalized method of moments and examines the impacts of economic policy uncertainty by the panel vector autoregressive model. Our findings indicate that the development of green finance effectively alleviates energy poverty in both the short and long terms. From the evolution path perspective, green finance mainly focuses on improving availability and cleanliness in the initial stage, subsequently, efficiency and completeness. In addition, the rising uncertainty in economic policy will decline clean energy investment, thereby hindering the energy poverty mitigation effects of green finance. The government should maintain the development of green finance through fiscal and tax measures while strengthening financial regulations. The government should also try to consider the efficiency and completeness of clean energy supply in the initial stage of an energy poverty eradication strategy. Furthermore, reducing the uncertainty of economic policy and guiding private investors and state-owned investors into clean energy transition are of great importance.
14. A comprehensive SERS, SEM and EDX study of individual atmospheric PM2.5 particles in Chengdu, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 883, 20 July 2023, 163668
Characterization of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in large cities has important implications for the study of their sources and formation mechanisms, as well as in developing effective measures to control air pollution. Herein, we report a holistic physical and chemical characterization of PM2.5 by combining surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron-induced X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). PM2.5 particles were collected in a suburban area of Chengdu, a large city in China with a population over 21 million. A special SERS chip composed of inverted hollow Au cone (IHAC) arrays was designed and fabricated to allow direct loading of PM2.5 particles. SERS and EDX were used to reveal the chemical composition, and particle morphologies were analyzed from SEM images. SERS data of atmospheric PM2.5 indicated qualitatively the presence of carbonaceous particulate matter, sulfate, nitrate, metal oxides and bioparticles. The EDX showed the presence of the elements C, N, O, Fe, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, and Ca in the collected PM2.5. Morphology analysis showed that the particulates were mainly in the form of flocculent clusters, spherical, regular crystal shaped or irregularly shaped particles. Our chemical and physical analyses also revealed that the main sources of PM2.5 are automobile exhaust, secondary pollution caused by photochemical reactions in the air, dust, emission from nearby industrial exhaust, biological particles, other aggregated particles, and hygroscopic particles. SERS and SEM data collected during three different seasons showed that carbon-containing particles are the principal sources of PM2.5. Our study demonstrates that the SERS based technique, when combined with standard physicochemical characterization methods, is a powerful analytical tool to determine the sources of ambient PM2.5 pollution. Results obtained in this work may be valuable to the prevention and control of PM2.5 pollution in air.
15. A multimedia model to estimate the environmental fate of microplastic particles
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 882, 15 July 2023, 163437
Nano- and microplastic (NMP) is a diverse and challenging contaminant and data on NMP concentrations are therefore not fully available for all environmental compartments. For environmental assessments of NMP, screening-level multimedia models can fill this gap, but such models are not available. Here, we present SimpleBox4Plastic (SB4P) as the first multimedia ‘unit world’ model capable of addressing the full NMP continuum, explore its validity, and evaluate it based on a case study for microbeads and by comparisons with (limited) concentration data. SB4P links NMP transport and concentrations in and across air, surface water, sediment, and soil, taking into account processes such as attachment, aggregation, and fragmentation, by solving mass balance equations using matrix algebra. These link all concentrations and processes known to be relevant for NMP using first-order rate constants, which are obtained from the literature. The SB4P model, as applied to microbeads, provided mass or number concentrations of NMP as the total of ‘free’ particles, heteroaggregates with natural colloids, and larger natural particles in each compartment at steady state. Processes most relevant in explaining observed Predicted Exposure Concentrations (PECs) were determined using rank correlation analysis. Although the predicted PECs remained uncertain due to the propagating uncertainty, inferences regarding these processes and relative distribution across compartments can be considered robust.
16. Associations of ambient temperature with creatine kinase MB and creatine kinase: A large sample time series study of the Chinese male population
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 880, 1 July 2023, 163250
Previous evidence has associated non-optimal ambient temperature with an increased risk of myocardial infarction. However, no studies have shown an association between ambient temperature and biomarkers in the myocardium. This study aimed to investigate the association of ambient temperature with creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) and creatine kinase (CK). A total of 94,784 men aged 20–50 years were included in this study. We performed blood biochemical tests on the participants and used the daily average temperature to represent ambient temperature. The daily average ambient temperature was calculated by hourly observational data from meteorological indicators in Beijing. Lag effects were observed within 0–7 days. General additive models were used to observe nonlinear associations of ambient temperature with CK-MB and CK. Linear models were used to fit the associations of cold or heat with CK-MB and CK, respectively, after confirming the inflection point of ambient temperature. The OR value of abnormal CK-MB (CK) for a 1 °C increase or decrease was calculated by logistic regression. In the results, a V-shaped relationship between CK-MB and ambient temperature and a linear relationship between CK and ambient temperature were observed. Cold exposure was associated with increased CK-MB and CK levels. For a 1 °C decrease, CK-MB increased by 0.044 U/L (95 % CI: 0.017, 0.070 U/L) at lag day 0, and CK increased by 1.44 U/L (0.44, 2.44 U/L) at lag day 4 (the lag day with the strongest effect). The OR of high CK-MB was 1.047 (1.017, 1.077) at lag day 0, and the OR of high CK was 1.066 (1.038, 1.095) at lag day 4 for a 1 °C decrease. No heat-related elevation of CK-MB or CK was observed. In general, cold exposure is associated with increased levels of CK-MB and CK in humans, which may be associated with myocardial injury. Our findings illustrate the possible adverse effects of cold exposure on the myocardium from a biomarker perspective.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Impacts of COVID-19’s restriction measures on personal exposure to VOCs and aldehydes in Taipei City
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 880, 1 July 2023, 163275
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic provided an unprecedented natural experiment, that allowed us to investigate the impacts of different restrictive measures on personal exposure to specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes and resulting health risks in the city. Ambient concentrations of the criteria air pollutants were also evaluated. Passive sampling for VOCs and aldehydes was conducted for graduate students and ambient air in Taipei, Taiwan, during the Level 3 warning (strict control measures) and Level 2 alert (loosened control measures) of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021–2022. Information on the daily activities of participants and on-road vehicle counts nearby the stationary sampling site during the sampling campaigns were recorded. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) with adjusted meteorological and seasonal variables were used to estimate the effects of control measures on average personal exposures to the selected air pollutants. Our results showed that ambient CO and NO2 concentrations in relation to on-road transportation emissions were significantly reduced, which led to an increase in ambient O3 concentrations. Exposure to specific VOCs (benzene, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), xylene, ethylbenzene, and 1,3-butadiene) associated with automobile emissions were remarkably decreased by ~40–80 % during the Level 3 warning, resulting in 42 % and 50 % reductions of total incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and hazard index (HI), respectively, compared with the Level 2 alert. In contrast, the exposure concentration and calculated health risks in the selected population for formaldehyde increased by ~25 % on average during the Level 3 warning. Our study improves knowledge of the influence of a series of anti-COVID-19 measures on personal exposure to specific VOCs and aldehydes and its mitigations.
2. An advanced remote sensing retrieval method for urban non-optically active water quality parameters: An example from Shanghai
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 880, 1 July 2023, 163389
The optical insensitivity of non-optically active water quality parameters (NAWQPs) presents a significant challenge for remote sensing-based quantitative monitoring, which is an important tool for water quality assessment and management. Based on the analysis of the samples from Shanghai, China, it was found that the spectral morphological characteristics of the water body were obviously different under the combined effect of multiple NAWQPs. In view of this, in this paper, a machine learning method was proposed for the retrieval of urban NAWQPs by using multi-spectral scale morphological combined feature (MSMCF). The proposed method integrates both local and global spectral morphological features, and employs a multi-scale approach to enhance its applicability and stability, providing a more accurate and robust solution. To explore the applicability of the MSMCF method in retrieving urban NAWQPs, different methods were tested in terms of the retrieval accuracy and stability on the measured data and three different hyperspectral data. As can be seen from the results, the proposed method has good retrieval performance, which can be applied to hyperspectral data with different spectral resolutions with certain ability to suppress noise. Further analysis indicates that the sensitivity of each NAWQP to spectral morphological features varies. The research methods and findings in this paper can promote the development of hyperspectral and remote sensing technology in the prevention and treatment of urban water quality deterioration, and provide reference for related research.
3. Urban land uses shape soil microbial abundance and diversity
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 883, 20 July 2023, 163455
Soil microbial biodiversity provides many useful services in cities. However, the ecology of microbial communities in urban soils remains poorly documented, and studies are required to better predict the impact of urban land use. We characterized microbial communities (archea/bacteria and fungi) in urban soils in Dijon (Burgundy, France). Three main land uses were considered – public leisure, traffic, and urban agriculture – sub-categorized in sub-land uses according to urban indexes and management practices. Microbial biomass and diversity were determined by quantifying and high-throughput sequencing of soil DNA. Variation partitioning analysis was used to rank soil physicochemical characteristics and land uses according to their relative contribution to the variation of soil microbial communities. Urban soils in Dijon harbored high levels of microbial biomass and diversity that varied according to land uses. Microbial biomass was 1.8 times higher in public leisure and traffic sites than in urban agriculture sites. Fungal richness increased by 25 % in urban agriculture soils, and bacterial richness was lower (by 20 %) in public leisure soils. Partitioning models explained 25.7 %, 46.2 % and 75.6 % of the variance of fungal richness, bacterial richness and microbial biomass, respectively. The organic carbon content and the C/N ratio were the best predictors of microbial biomass, whereas soil bacterial diversity was mainly explained by soil texture and land use. Neither metal trace elements nor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contents explained variations of microbial communities, probably due to their very low concentration in the soils. The microbial composition results highlighted that leisure sites represented a stabilized habitat favoring specialized microbial groups and microbial plant symbionts, as opposed to urban agriculture sites that stimulated opportunistic populations able to face the impact of agricultural practices. Altogether, our results provide evidence that there is scope for urban planners to drive soil microbial diversity through sustainable urban land use and associated management practices.
4. Development, performance and microbial community analysis of a continuous-flow microalgal-bacterial biofilm photoreactor for municipal wastewater treatment
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 338, 15 July 2023, 117770
This work reported the development, performance and microbial community of microalgal-bacterial biofilms cultivated in a continuous-flow photoreactor for municipal wastewater treatment under various conditions. Results showed that microalgal-bacterial biofilms were successfully developed at a HRT of 9 h without external aeration, with a biofilm concentration of around 4690 mg/L being achieved in the steady-state. It was found that further increase of HRT to 12 h did not improve the overall accumulation of biofilm, whereas the growth of microalgae in biofilms was faster than bacteria in the initial stage, indicated by an increased chlorophyll-a&b content in biofilms. After which, the chlorophyll-a&b content in biofilms gradually stabilized at the level comparable with the seed, suggesting that there was a balanced distribution of microalgae and bacteria in biofilms. About 90% of TOC, 71.4% of total nitrogen and 72.6% of phosphorus were removed by microalgal-bacterial biofilms mainly through assimilation in the steady-state photoreactor run at the HRT of 12 h with external aeration. The community analysis further revealed that Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi were the main components, while Chlorophyta appeared to be the dominant eukaryotic algal community in biofilms. This study could offer new insights into the development of microalgal-bacterial biofilms in a continuous-flow photoreactor for sustainable low-carbon municipal wastewater treatment.
5. Traffic noise annoyance in the LIFE-adult study in Germany: Exposure-response relationships and a comparison to the WHO curves
Environmental Research, Volume 228, 1 July 2023, 115815
Noise annoyance is the second-highest cause of lost disability-adjusted life-years due to environmental noise in Europe. Evidence on exposure-response relationships (ERRs) for traffic noise annoyance with more accurate exposure values is still needed.
In an analysis of the population-based LIFE-Adult study in Leipzig, Germany, we aimed to investigate the effect of road, railway (train and tram), and aircraft noise on high annoyance (HA).
Traffic exposure data was taken for 2012 and data on noise annoyance was evaluated between 2018 and 2021. HA was defined according to international standardized norms. We calculated risk estimates using logistic regression, controlling for age, sex, and socioeconomic status, and compared our ERRs with those from the last WHO review on this topic.
Aircraft noise had the highest relative risk for noise-related HA (OR = 12.7, 95% CI: 9.37–17.10 per 10 dB Lden increase). The road and railway traffic risk estimates were similar to each other (road: OR = 3.55, 95% CI: 2.78–4.54; railway: OR = 3.31, 95% CI: 2.77–3.97 per 10 dB Lden increase). Compared to the WHO curves, the proportion of highly annoyed individuals was somewhat lower for road and rail traffic noise, but higher for aircraft noise.
Aircraft noise is particularly annoying. There were differences between our study’s ERRs and those in the WHO review, especially for aircraft noise. These differences may be partly explained by the improved accuracy of the exposure values, as we considered secondary road networks and tram noise, and by a lack of a nighttime flight ban at the Leipzig airport. Geographical, regional and climatic variations, inconsistency in HA cut-offs, as well as temporal developments in the annoyance experience may also explain the differences. Since ERRs serve as a basis for decision making in public policies, regular updates of the curves based on new evidence is recommended.
6. Material stock analysis of urban road from nighttime light data based on a bottom-up approach
Environmental Research, Volume 228, 1 July 2023, 115902
In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the dynamics of material stock, that is, the basis of material flow in the entire ecosystem. With the gradual improvement of the global road network encryption project, the uncontrolled extraction, processing, and transportation of raw materials impose serious resource concerns and environmental pressure. Quantifying material stocks enable governments to formulate scientific policies because socio-economic metabolism, including resource allocation, use, and waste recovery, can be systematically assessed. In this study, OpenStreetMap road network data were used to extract the urban road skeleton, and nighttime light images were divided by watershed to construct regression equations based on geographical location attributes. Resultantly, a generic road material stock estimation model was developed and applied to Kunming. We concluded that (1) the top three stocks are stone chips, macadam, and grit (total weight is 380 million tons), (2) the proportion of asphalt, mineral powder, lime, and fly ash is correspondingly similar, and (3) the unit area stock decreases as the road grade declines; therefore, the branch road has the lowest unit stock.
7. Long-term exposure to low-level particulate air pollution and Parkinson’s disease diagnosis – A Finnish register-based study
Environmental Research, Volume 229, 15 July 2023, 115944
There is mixed evidence for an association between particulate matter air pollution and Parkinson’s disease despite biological plausibility.
We studied the association between particulate air pollution, its components and Parkinson’s disease (PD) risk.
We conducted a nested case-control study within the population of Finland using national registers. A total of 22,189 incident PD cases diagnosed between 1996 and 2015 were matched by age, sex and region with up to seven controls (n = 148,009) per case. Time weighted average air pollution exposure to particulate matter and its components was modelled at the residential addresses, accounting for move history, for the 16 years preceding diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between air pollution and PD. Different exposure periods (6–16 years, 11–16 years, 5–10 years, 0–5 years) before the index date (date of PD diagnosis) were applied.
Time-weighted average exposures were relatively low at 12.1 ± 6.5 μg/m3 (mean ± SD) for PM10 and 7.7 ± 3.2 μg/m3 for PM2.5. No associations were found between PM2.5 or PM10 exposure 6–16 years before index date and PD (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.02; per IQR of 3.9 μg/m3 and OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.01; per IQR of 7.8 μg/m3, respectively). However, inverse associations were observed for the same exposure period with black carbon (OR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93, 0.99; per IQR of 0.6 μg/m3), sulphate (OR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.92; per IQR of 1.2 μg/m3), secondary organic aerosols (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.93; per IQR of 0.1 μg/m3) and sea salt (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.98; per IQR of 0.1 μg/m3).
Low-level particulate matter air pollution was not associated with increased risk of incident PD in this Finnish nationwide population. The observed weak inverse associations with specific particle components should be investigated further.
8. Arsenic exposure incurs hyperglycemia mediated by oxidative damage in urban adult population: A prospective cohort study with three repeated measures
Environmental Research, Volume 229, 15 July 2023, 116009
The associations and potential mechanisms of low to moderate arsenic exposure with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are still unclear. To assess the effects of short-term and long-term arsenic exposure on hyperglycemia and the mediating effect of oxidative damage on such association, three repeated-measures studies with 9938 observations were conducted in the Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort. The levels of urinary total arsenic, FPG, urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2α), urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and plasma protein carbonyls (PCO) were measured. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate the exposure-response relationships of urinary total arsenic with FPG and the prevalent risks of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), T2DM, and abnormal glucose regulation (AGR). Cox regression models were applied to assess the associations of arsenic exposure with incident risks of IFG, T2DM, and AGR. Mediation analyses were performed to assess the mediating effects of 8-iso-PGF2α, 8-OHdG, and PCO. In cross-sectional analyses, each one-unit increase in natural log-transformed urinary total arsenic was associated with a 0.082 (95% CI: 0.047 to 0.118) mmol/L increase in FPG, as well as a 10.3% (95% CI: 1.4%–20.0%), 4.4% (95% CI: 5.3%–15.2%), and 8.7% (95% CI: 1.2%–16.6%) increase in prevalent risks of IFG, T2DM, and AGR, respectively. In longitudinal analyses, arsenic exposure was further associated with the annual increased rate of FPG with a β (95% CI) of 0.021 (95% CI: 0.010 to 0.033). The incident risks of IFG, T2DM, and AGR were increased without statistical significance when arsenic levels increased. Mediation analyses showed that 8-iso-PGF2α and PCO mediated 30.04% and 10.02% of the urinary total arsenic-associated FPG elevation, respectively. Our study indicated that arsenic exposure was associated with elevated level and progression rate of FPG among general Chinese adults, where lipid peroxidation and oxidative protein damage might be the potential mechanisms.
9. Effects of pollen concentration on allergic rhinitis in children: A retrospective study from Beijing, a Chinese megacity
Environmental Research, Volume 229, 15 July 2023, 115903
With global climate change and rapid urbanization, the prevalence of allergic diseases caused by pollen is rising dramatically worldwide with unprecedented complexity and severity, especially for children in mega-cities. However, because of the lack of long time-series pollen concentrations data, the accurate evaluation of the impact of pollen on allergic rhinitis (AR) was scarce in the Chinese metropolis. A generalized additive model was used to assess the effect of pollen concentration on pediatric AR outpatient visits in Beijing from 2014 to 2019. A stratified analysis of 10 pollen species and age-gender-specific groups was also conducted during the spring and summer-autumn peak pollen periods separately. Positive associations between pollen concentration and pediatric AR varied with the season and pollen species were detected. Although the average daily pollen concentration is higher during the spring tree pollen peak, the influence was stronger at the summer-autumn weed pollen peak with the maximum relative risk 1.010 (95% CI 1.009, 1.011), which was higher than the greatest relative risk, 1.003 (95% CI 1.002, 1.004) in the spring peak. The significant adverse effects can be sustained to lag10 during the study period, and longer in the summer-autumn peak (lag13) than in the spring peak (lag8). There are thresholds for the health effects and they varied between seasons. The significant effect appeared when the pollen concentration was higher than 3.74 × 105 grain·m−2·d−1 during the spring tree pollen peaks and 4.70 × 104 grain·m−2·d−1 during the summer-autumn weed pollen peaks. The stratified results suggested that the species-specific effects were heterogeneous. It further highlights that enough attention should be paid to the problem of pollen allergy in children, especially school-aged children aged 7–18 years and weed pollen in the summer-autumn peak pollen period. These findings provide a more accurate reference for the rational coordination of medical resources and improvement of public health.
10. Local environment, surface characteristics and stochastic processes shape the dynamics of urban dustbin surface microbiome
Environment International, Volume 177, July 2023, 108004
Dustbins function as critical infrastructures for urban sanitation, creating a distinct breeding ground for microbial assemblages. However, there is no information regarding the dynamics of microbial communities and the underlying mechanism for community assembly on dustbin surfaces. Here, surface samples were collected from three sampling zones (business building, commercial street and residential community) with different types (kitchen waste, harmful waste, recyclables, and others) and materials (metallic and plastic); and distribution pattern and assembly of microbial communities were investigated by high-throughput sequencing. Bacterial and fungal communities showed the distinct community variations across sampling zones and waste sorting. Core community and biomarker species were significantly correlated with the spatial distribution of overall community. The detection of pathogens highlighted the potential risk of surface microbiome. Human skin, human feces and soil biomes were the potential source environments of the surface microbiomes. Neutral model prediction suggested that microbial community assembly was significantly driven by stochastic processes. Co-association patterns varied with sampling zones and waste types, and neutral amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) that fall within the 95 % confidence intervals of neutral model were largely involved in the stability of microbial networks. These findings improve our understanding of the distribution pattern and the underlying assembly of microbial community on the dustbin surface, thus enabling prospective prediction and assessment of urban microbiomes and their impacts on human health.
11. Characterising the vertical structure of buildings in cities for use in atmospheric models
Urban Climate, Volume 50, July 2023, 101560
Urban schemes for numerical weather prediction (NWP) often assume an infinite street canyon with constant height and width, impacting turbulent and radiative fluxes. We develop parameterisations for urban morphology profiles, with five complexity levels, using data from six cities at 2 km × 2 km resolution. Comparisons of parameterised building plan area to these ‘true’ data show that 90% of building fraction profiles have bias errors (BE) at any height of <0.03. An effective building diameter (D) is used to characterise the proportionality between building plan area and building normalised perimeter length. The six-city mean D is 21 m. Relations for D have normalised BE (nBE) < 16%, increasing to 26% when total wall area is assumed to be unknown. Impacts from using these new morphology relations are tested with SPARTACUS-Urban radiative transfer simulations. The effective shortwave albedo has a nBE 2–10% (cf. ‘true’). Within-canyon absorption have larger nBEs, suggesting the bulk albedo hides within-canopy errors. Overall, nBE increase as less morphology data are provided, notably when omitting total wall area. We conclude that urban vertical variability using the proposed relations are acceptable for NWP, requiring only: surface building plan area, mean building height, and effective building diameter.
12. Land cover aware temperature correction of bicycle transects: A case study of mapping the air temperature in two Belgian cities
Urban Climate, Volume 50, July 2023, 101578
A low-threshold methodology for mapping the nocturnal air temperature in an urbanized region based on bicycle measurements and a number of in-situ weather stations is presented. Firstly, two corrections are applied on the bike measurements: a thermal inertia correction to account for the finite reaction speed of the temperature sensor and a temperature decline correction to offset the background temperature evolution during the mobile measurements. The latter includes for the first time land cover information to account for its impact on the nocturnal cooling rate. Secondly, a linear statistical model is used to produce regional maps of the air temperature based on the relationship between the corrected temperature and land cover around the bicycle transect. Applying this methodology on the Belgian cities of Antwerp and Ghent demonstrates that this low-threshold approach allows for a comprehensive picture of the air temperature and that it has advantages compared to more traditional decline corrections. Further improvements could be made by employing more accurate temperature sensors, applying more complex statistical models and performing multiple measurement campaigns per evening.
13. Occurrence and risk of human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants in indoor air and dust in Hanoi, Vietnam
Chemosphere, Volume 328, July 2023, 138597
The presence and distribution of thirteen organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) were investigated in indoor air and dust samples collected in Hanoi, Vietnam. The total OPFRs (ƩOPFRs) concentrations in indoor air and dust samples were 42.3–358 ng m−3 (median 101 ng m−3) and 1290–17,500 ng g−1 (median 7580 ng g−1), respectively. The profile of OPFRs in both indoor air and dust indicated that tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) was the most dominant compound with a median concentration of 75.3 ng m−3 and 3620 ng g−1, contributing 75.2% and 46.1% to ƩOPFRs concentrations in indoor air and dust, respectively, followed by tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), with a median concentration of 16.3 ng m−3 and 2500 ng g−1, contributing 14.1% and 33.6% to ƩOPFRs concentrations in indoor air and dust, respectively. The levels of OPFRs in the indoor air samples and corresponding indoor dust samples showed a strong positive correlation. The total estimated daily intakes (EDItotal) of ƩOPFRs (via air inhalation, dust ingestion, and dermal absorption) for adults and toddlers under the median and high exposure scenarios were 36.7 and 160 ng kg−1 d−1, and 266 and 1270 ng kg−1 d−1, respectively. Among the investigated exposure pathways, dermal absorption was a primary exposure pathway to OPFRs for both toddlers and adults. The hazard quotients (HQ) ranged from 5.31 × 10−8 to 6.47 × 10−2 (<1), and the lifetime cancer risks (LCR) were from 2.05 × 10−11 to 7.37 × 10−8 (<10−6), indicating that human health risks from exposure to OPFRs in indoor environments are not significant.
14. Simultaneous anaerobic carbon and nitrogen removal from primary municipal wastewater with hydrogel encapsulated anaerobic digestion sludge and AOA-anammox coated hollow fiber membrane
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 883, 20 July 2023, 163696
In this study, a one-stage continuous-flow membrane-hydrogel reactor integrating both partial nitritation-anammox (PN-anammox) and anaerobic digestion (AD) was designed and operated for simultaneous autotrophic nitrogen (N) and anaerobic carbon (C) removal from mainstream municipal wastewater. In the reactor, a synthetic biofilm consisting of anammox biomass and pure culture ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) were coated onto and maintained on a counter-diffusion hollow fiber membrane to autotrophically remove nitrogen. Anaerobic digestion sludge was encapsulated in hydrogel beads and placed in the reactor to anaerobically remove COD. During the pilot operation at three operating temperature (25, 16 and 10 °C), the membrane-hydrogel reactor demonstrated stable anaerobic COD removal (76.2 ± 15.5 %) and membrane fouling was successfully suppressed allowing a relatively stable PN-anammox process. The reactor demonstrated good nitrogen removal efficiency, with an overall removal efficiency of 95.8 ± 5.0 % for NH4+-N and 78.9 ± 13.2 % for total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) during the entire pilot operation. Reducing the temperature to 10 °C caused a temporary reduction in nitrogen removal performance and abundances of AOA and anammox. However, the reactor and microbes demonstrated the ability to adapt to the low temperature spontaneously with recovered nitrogen removal performance and microbial abundances. Methanogens in hydrogel beads and AOA and anammox on the membrane were observed in the reactor by qPCR and 16S sequencing across all operational temperatures.
15. Comprehensive study of recycling municipal solid waste incineration fly ash in lightweight aggregate with bloating agent: Effects of water washing and bloating mechanism
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 881, 10 July 2023, 163267
Recycling into lightweight aggregate (LWA) by sintering is a promising technology for disposal of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (FA). In this study, FA and washed FA (WFA) were combined with bentonite and SiC (bloating agent) to make LWA. The performance was comprehensively studied by hot-stage microscopy and laboratory preparation experiments. Water washing and increased FA/WFA improved LWA bloating extent, while shorten the bloating temperature range. Water washing also increased the 1 h-water absorption rate of LWA, making it harder to meet the standard. Excessive FA /WFA usage (70 wt%) will prevent LWA from bloating. For the goal of recycling more FA, mixture with 50 wt% WFA could prepare LWA that meet standard GB/T 17431 at 1140–1160 °C. After water washing, the ratio of Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu stabilized in LWA increased by 279 %, 410 %, 458 %, and 109 % for 30 wt% FA/WFA addition, and 364 %, 554 %, 717 %, and 697 % for 50 wt% FA/WFA addition, respectively. The change of liquid phase content and viscosity at high temperature were determined using the thermodynamic calculations and chemical compositions. The bloating mechanism was further investigated by integrating these two properties. To obtain accurate results of the bloat viscosity range (2.75–4.44 log Pa·s) for high CaO systems, the composition of the liquid phase should be taken into account. The liquid phase viscosity required for bloating start was proportional to the liquid phase content. With temperature increasing, bloating would end when viscosity drops to 2.75 log Pa·s or liquid phase content reach 95 %. These findings provided further understanding of the heavy metal stabilization during LWA production and the bloating mechanism of high CaO content systems, and could contribute to the feasibility and sustainability of recycling FA and other CaO-rich solid wastes into LWA.
16. Carbon footprint analysis and comprehensive evaluation of municipal wastewater treatment plants under different typical upgrading and reconstruction modes
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 880, 1 July 2023, 163335
The issue of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from the upgrading and reconstruction of municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWWTPs) along with improved water quality is receiving attention and research. There is an urgent need to explore the impact of upgrading and reconstruction on carbon footprint (CF) in order to address concerns that the upgrading and reconstruction will increase GHG emissions while improving water quality. Here we accounted for the CF of five MWWTPs in Zhejiang Province, China, before and after three different upgrading and reconstruction models – “Improving quality and efficiency” (“Mode I”), “Upgrading and renovation” (“Mode U”) and “Improving quality and efficiency plus Upgrading and renovation” (“Mode I plus U”). The upgrading and reconstruction was found to not necessarily result in more GHG emissions. In contrast, the “Mode I” had a more significant advantage in terms of CF reduction (1.82–12.6 % reduction in CF). Overall, the ratio of indirect emissions to direct emissions (indirect emissions/direct emissions) and the amount of GHG emitted per unit of pollutant removed (CFCOD、CFTN、CFTP) decreased, while both the carbon and energy neutral rates increased significantly (up to 33.29 % and 79.36 % respectively) after all three upgrading and reconstruction modes. In addition, the wastewater treatment efficiency and capacity are the main factors that affect the level of carbon emission. The results of this study can provide a calculation model that can be used for other similar MWWTPs during the upgrading and reconstruction processes. More importantly, it can provide a new research perspective as well as valuable information to revisit the impact of upgrading and reconstruction in MWWTPs on GHG emissions.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Evaluation of levels and sources of microplastics and phthalic acid esters and their relationships in the atmosphere of highly industrialized and urbanized Gebze, Türkiye
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 881, 10 July 2023, 163508
The presence of microplastics (MPs) in the atmosphere and their relationship with other pollutants have been gaining attention due to both their ubiquity and threatening human health. As well phthalic acid esters (PAEs) regarding as plasticizers for being added in plastic materials are key role for plastic pollution. In this study, the concentrations and sources of airborne MPs together with major PAEs and their relationships were investigated for four seasons. MP particles <20 μm, constituting the majority of the samples, were successfully revealed by NR fluorescent analysis. As a result of the μATR-FTIR analyzes, it was seen that besides different polymer derivatives, dye-pigment types, some minerals and compounds, and abundant semi-synthetic fibers and natural fibers were also present. MPs concentration were found in the range of 7207–21,042 MP/m3 in summer, 7245–32,950 MP/m3 in autumn, 4035–58,270 MP/m3 in winter and 7275–37,094 MP/m3 in spring. For the same period, the concentrations of PAEs ranged from 9.24 to 115.21 ng/m3 with an average value of 38.08 ± 7.92 ng/m3. PMF was also applied and four factors were extracted. Factor 1, accounts 52.26 % and 23.27 % of the total PAEs and MPs variances, was attributed to PVC sources. Factor 2, explaining 64.98 % of the total MPs variance had the highest loading of MPs and moderate loadings of relatively low molecular weight of PAEs, was attributed to plastics and personal care products. Factor 3, explaining the 28.31 % of the total PAEs variance was laden with BBP, DnBP, DiBP and DEP and was attributed to various plastic input during the sampling campaign coming from the industrial activities. The last factor accounts for 11.65 % of the total PAEs variance and was dominated by DMEP and it was linked to a source of the activities performed in the laboratories of the university.
2. Human occupational exposure to microplastics: A cross-sectional study in a plastic products manufacturing plant
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 882, 15 July 2023, 163576
Microplastics are ubiquitous in the natural environment, and their potential impact on health is a key issue of concern. Investigating exposure routes in humans and other living organisms is among the major challenges of microplastics. This study aims to examine the exposure level of plastic factory staff to microplastic particles before and after work shifts through body receptors (hand and facial skin, saliva and hair) in Sirjan, southeast of Iran. Moreover, the effect of face masks, gloves, cosmetics (e.g: face powder cream, lipstick and eye makeup products) and appearance on the exposure level is investigated. In total, 19 individuals are selected during six working days. Then, the collected samples are transferred to the laboratory for filtration, extraction, identification and counting of microplastic particles. Moreover, 4802 microplastic particles (100–5000 μm in size) in strand, polyhedral and spherical shapes and color spectra of white/transparent, black, blue/green, red and purple are observed. The nature of most of the observed samples is fiber with a size ≥1000 μm. Analyzing the selected samples using micro-Raman spectroscopy indicate polyester and nylon are the main identified fibers. Hair and saliva samples have the highest and lowest number of microplastics, respectively. Using gloves and sunscreen among all the participants, wearing a scarf and hair size among women and having a beard and mustache among men could have an effective role in the exposure level to microplastics. Results of this study could reveal the exposure route to microplastic particles in the human body and highlight the importance of providing higher protection to reduce exposure.
3. Life cycle assessment in the petroleum industry: A systematic framework towards improved environmental performance
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 408, 1 July 2023, 137196
The increase in worldwide energy demand continues to highlight the dependency on the petroleum industry albeit recent advances and market penetration of renewable technologies. This dependency reflects the importance of minimizing environmental impacts associated with the petroleum industry, especially in terms of the wide variety of industrial residuals generated during the various phases of operations and production processes, including and not limited to produced and slop water, drill cuttings, fluids, as well as oily sludge. In this study, we present a critical analysis and synthesis of life cycle assessment (LCA) for waste-wastewater management from the petroleum industry operations. For this purpose, we examine the industry’s waste-wastewater sources and types with current management approaches-techniques while focusing on the LCA role in this context. We identified the main literature gaps including a lack of studies about the reuse options of PW, lack of regionalized site-specific characterization factors (CF) for non-developed impact categories, and lack of sensitivity analysis integration. We conclude by proposing a systematic framework defining future work in LCA implementation targeting PW in particular as the largest wastewater stream from the sector.
4. Identifying the potential soil pollution areas derived from the metal mining industry in China using MaxEnt with mine reserve scales (MaxEnt_MRS)
Environmental Pollution, Volume 329, 15 July 2023, 121687
Identifying the potential soil pollution areas derived from the metal mining industry usually requires extensive field investigation and laboratory analysis. Moreover, the previous studies mainly focused on a single or a few mining areas, and thus couldn’t provide effective spatial decision support for controlling soil pollution derived from the metal mining industry at the national scale. This study first conducted a literature investigation and web crawler for the relevant information on the metal mining areas in China. Next, MaxEnt with mine reserve scales (MaxEnt_MRS) was proposed for spatially predicting the probabilities of soil pollution derived from the metal mining industry in China. Then, MaxEnt_MRS was compared with the basic MaxEnt. Last, the potential soil pollution areas were identified based on the pollution probabilities, and the relationships between the soil pollution probabilities and the main environmental factors were quantitatively assessed. The results showed that: (i) MaxEnt_MRS (AUC = 0.822) obtained a better prediction effect than the basic MaxEnt (AUC = 0.807); (ii) the areas with the soil pollution probabilities higher than 54% were mainly scattered in the eastern, south-western, and south-central parts of China; (iii) GDP (45.7%), population density (30.1%), soil types (15.5%), average annual precipitation (3.9%), and land-use types (3.1%) contributed the most to the prediction of the soil pollution probabilities; and (iv) the soil pollution probabilities in the areas with all the following conditions were higher than 54%: GDP, 7600–2612670 thousand yuan/km2; population density, 152–551 people/km2; precipitation, 924–2869 mm/year; soil types, Ferralisols or Luvisols; and land-use types, townland, mines, and industrial areas. The above-mentioned results provided effective spatial decision support for controlling soil pollution derived from the metal mining industry at the national scale.
5. Efficient removal and recovery of phosphorus from industrial wastewater in the form of vivianite
Environmental Research, Volume 228, 1 July 2023, 115848
With the shortage of phosphorus resources, the concept of phosphorus recovery from wastewater is generally proposed. Recently, phosphorus recovery from wastewater in the form of vivianite has been widely reported, which could be used as a slow-release fertilizer as well as the production of lithium iron phosphate for Li-ion batteries. In this study, chemical precipitation thermodynamic modeling was applied to evaluate the effect of solution factors on vivianite crystallization with actual phosphorus containing industrial wastewater. The modeling results showed that the solution pH influences the concentration of diverse ions, and the initial Fe2+ concentration affects the formation area of vivianite. The saturation index (SI) of vivianite increased with the initial Fe2+ concentration and Fe:P molar ratio. pH 7.0, initial Fe2+ concentration 500 mg/L and Fe:P molar ratio 1.50 were the optimal conditions for phosphorus recovery. Mineral Liberation Analyzer (MLA) accurately determined the purity of vivianite was 24.13%, indicating the feasibility of recovering vivianite from industrial wastewater. In addition, the cost analysis showed that the cost of recovering phosphorus by the vivianite process was 0.925 USD/kg P, which can produce high-value vivianite products and realize “turn waste into treasure”.
6. Chemical characterization and source attribution of organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters from a Chinese chemical industrial park
Environmental Research, Volume 229, 15 July 2023, 115980
Accelerated urbanization and industrialization have led to an alarming increase in the generation of wastewater with complex chemical contents. Industrial wastewaters are often a primary source of water contamination. The chemical characterization of different industrial wastewater types is an essential task to interpret the chemical fingerprints of wastewater to identify pollution sources and develop efficient water treatment strategies. In this study, we conduct a non-target chemical analysis for the source characterization of different industrial wastewater samples collected from a chemical industrial park (CIP) located in southeast China. The chemical screening identified volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds that included dibutyl phthalate at a maximum concentration of 13.4 μg/L and phthalic anhydride at 35.9 μg/L. Persistent, mobile, and toxic (PMT) substances among the detected organic compounds were identified and prioritized as high-concern contaminants given their impact on drinking water resources. Moreover, a source analysis of the wastewater collected from the wastewater outlet station indicated that the dye production industry contributed the largest quantities of toxic contaminates (62.6%), and this result was consistent with the ordinary least squares and heatmap results. Thus, our study utilized a combined approach of a non-target chemical analysis, a pollution source identification method, and a PMT assessment of different industrial wastewater samples collected from the CIP. The results of the chemical fingerprints of different industrial wastewater types as well as the results of the PMT assessment benefit risk-based wastewater management and source reduction strategies.
7. UV-activated persulfates oxidation of anthraquinone dye: Kinetics and ecotoxicological assessment
Environmental Research, Volume 229, 15 July 2023, 115910
Sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOPs) are gaining popularity as a feasible alternative for removing recalcitrant pollutants in an aqueous environment. Persulfates, namely peroxydisulfate (PDS) and peroxymonosulfate (PMS) are the most common sulfate radical donors. Persulfates activation by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is considered feasible due to the high concentration of radicals produced as well as the lack of catalysts leaching. The research focuses on determining the impact of activated PDS and PMS on the degradation of anthraquinone dye, i.e., Acid Blue 129 (AB129). UV-activated PDS and PMS can quickly degrade the AB129 as well as restrict the formation of by-products. This could explain the reduced ecotoxicity levels of the treated water after degradation, using an aquatic plant (Lemna minor) and a crustacean (Daphnia magna). This, on the other hand, can ensure that the sulfate radical-based processes can be an environmentally friendly technology.
8. Decarbonizing the cement and concrete industry: A systematic review of socio-technical systems, technological innovations, and policy options
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 180, July 2023, 113291
Concrete is the most highly used construction material globally. This is largely due to its durability, versatility and manufacture from inexpensive and readily available materials. Although concrete has become an essential and ubiquitous construction material for modern society, its use has significant environmental impacts. The full cement and concrete lifecycle, from production to final disposal, accounts for nearly 10% of global energy-related CO2 emissions with the majority of these emissions produced from cement, which is the binding material that holds concrete together. The cement and concrete industry (CCI), which is integral to global infrastructure development, is therefore confronted with a growing need to decarbonize its operations and products, as well as to support the decarbonization of associated end-user sectors. This paper provides a systematic and critical review of more than 800 studies to highlight ways in which the CCI can decarbonize. A socio-technical perspective is used to understand the full range of industrial and economic activities where a decarbonized paradigm for cement and concrete production is relevant. This perspective is further used to assess key technical, economic, social and political factors that will drive a net-zero transition in the CCI over the long term.
9. Bio-fabricated bismuth-based materials for removal of emerging environmental contaminants from wastewater
Environmental Research, Volume 229, 15 July 2023, 115861
Although rapid industrialization has made life easier for humans, several associated issues are emerging and harming the environment. Wastewater is regarded as one of the key problems of the 21st century due to its massive production every year and requires immediate attention from all stakeholders to protect the environment. Since the introduction of nanotechnology, bismuth-based nanomaterials have been used in variety of applications. Various techniques, such as hydrothermal, solvo-thermal and biosynthesis, have been reported for synthesizing these materials, etc. Among these, biosynthesis is eco-friendly, cost-effective, and less toxic than conventional chemical methods. The prime focuses of this review are to elaborate biosynthesis of bismuth-based nanomaterials via bio-synthetic agents such as plant, bacteria and fungi and their application in wastewater treatment as anti-pathogen/photocatalyst for pollutant degradation. Besides this, future perspectives have been presented for the upcoming research in this field, along with concluding remarks.
10. Recycling of lithium and fluoride from LiF wastewater from LiF synthesis industry by solvent extraction
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Volume 11, Issue 5, October 2023, 110557
The LiF synthesis industry produces a large amount of wastewater that contains ∼0.36 g/L lithium and ∼1.10 g/L fluorine. The traditional treatment solidified fluoride by excessive CaO, resulting in waste of lithium resources and generation of CaF2-CaO solid waste. To recover the Li and F from the LiF wastewater, a two-section solvent extraction process using acidic solvent and mixed solvent as organic solvent was designed and the extraction mechanism were systematically investigated. The result showed that Li extraction was extracted by a cation exchange mechanism with D2EHPA (di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid), 99.72% Li recovery and battery-grade LiCl solution (3.40 g/L) were achieved by mixed the LiF aqueous with the saponified D2EHPA at 25 ℃ for 6 mins with 4.60 equilibrium pH. After then, F was recovered by mixed neutral solvent system, which coordination binding with HF molecule. The ultimately residue contains ∼1 mg/L Li and < 6 mg/L F. Besides, high-purity LiF products (LiF>99.95%) was generated by stripping with LiOH, F recovery is 99.45%. 2-stage extraction process realizes lithium and fluoride recovery with short process, no pollution and great prospect of industrialization.
11. Occurrence and prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes and pathogens in an industrial park wastewater treatment plant
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 880, 1 July 2023, 163278
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and pathogens are emerging environmental pollutants that pose a threat to human health and ecosystem. Industrial park wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) treat large amounts of comprehensive wastewater derived from industrial production and park human activity, which is possible a source of ARGs and pathogens. Therefore, this study investigated the occurrence and prevalence of ARGs, ARGs hosts and pathogens and assesses the ARGs health risk in the biological treatment process in a large-sale industrial park WWTP using metagenomic analysis and omics-based framework, respectively. Results show that the major ARG subtypes are multidrug resistance genes (MDRGs), macB, tetA(58), evgS, novA, msbA and bcrA and the ARGs main hosts were genus Acidovorax, Pseudomonas, Mesorhizobium. In particular, all determined ARGs genus level hosts are pathogens. The total removal percentage of ARGs, MDRGs and pathogens were 12.77 %, 12.96 % and 25.71 % respectively, suggesting that the present treatment could not efficiently remove these pollutants. The relative abundance of ARGs, MDRGs and pathogens varied along biological treatment process that ARGs and MDRGs were enriched in activated sludge and pathogens were enriched in both secondary sedimentation tank and activated sludge. Among 980 known ARGs, 23 ARGs (e.g., ermB, gadX and tetM) were assigned into risk Rank I with characters of enrichment in the human-associated environment, gene mobility and pathogenicity. The results indicate that industrial park WWTPs might serve as an important source of ARGs, MDRGs, and pathogens. These observations invite further study of the origination, development, dissemination and risk assessment of industrial park WWTPs ARGs and pathogens.
12. Distribution of bound-PAH residues and their correlations with the bacterial community at different depths of soil from an abandoned chemical plant site
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 453, 5 July 2023, 131328
The situ pollutant residue and microbial characteristics in contaminated environments are crucial for ecological restoration and soil utilization. This work reported the variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) residues and the bacterial community at different depths in an aged-abandoned site. These results unveiled that over 90% of low molecular weight (LMW) and medium molecular weight (MMW), 52.84–76.88% of high molecular weight (HMW) bound-PAH (BP) residues were sequestrated in humin (HM). The stresses of PAH and soil depth enhanced the frequency of bacteria associations, especially positive associations. We enriched and cultured PAH degradation bacteria (PDB) from the sampling site mainly consisting of Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, which were originally 0.39–0.52% abundant in the sampling site. The abundances of PDB and PAH-degradation genes (PDGs) were higher at shallower depths and increased with high PAH concentration. Simultaneously, Pearson correlation analysis and experimental verification found that the process of PAH binding with SOM limited the further increase of PDB and PDGs in PAH-contaminated sites. These findings may illustrate possible ecological risks of contaminated soils and provide guidance for the isolation and application of PDB.
13. Effect of innovative-city pilot policy on industry–university–research collaborative innovation
Journal of Business Research, Volume 162, July 2023, 113867
The study applies the social cooperation network and multi-period DID to identify the conduction path and effect of innovative-city pilot policy on IUR collaborative innovation in 26 YRD cities during 2005–2020. The IUR collaboration innovation has made significant progress in YRD. Simultaneously, the IUR cooperative intensity and control capability of cooperative network of YRD cities have increased gradually. However, the IUR R&D efficiency and IUR transformation efficiency both haven’t reached the optimal level in YRD, and the transformation efficiency is always less than R&D efficiency. The pilot policy has a positive effect on improving IUR innovation efficiency. The policy effects for provincial capital cities are greater than those for non-provincial capital cities. Provincially, the pilot policy on IUR collaborative innovation efficiency reaches highest in Zhejiang and lowest in Jiangsu. The IUR cooperative intensity and control capability of cooperative network have partial intermediary effect on pilot policy.
14. Who’s controlling our energy future? Industry and environmental representation on United States public utility commissions
Energy Research & Social Science, Volume 101, July 2023, 103091
Public utility commissions (PUCs) are small state-level regulatory institutions in the United States adjudicating conflicts over electrical power rates, energy generation, electric vehicle infrastructure, and energy efficiency among other issues. PUCs are critically understudied institutions given their central role in addressing climate change. This is partially due to a lack of data related to public utility commissioners. What are the characteristics of these energy system regulators? I make an initial contribution with expansive original data on the professional backgrounds of the over 800 commissioners who served from 2000 to 2020. Particular attention is given to ties to the utilities PUCs regulate, the fossil fuel industry, and environmental positions in government, business, and advocacy. Utility industry backgrounds have become more frequent, but there has been a greater increase in environmental connections in recent years. These data and findings can stimulate additional research on the increasing environmental responsibilities of PUCs.
15. A green and multi-win strategy for coal fly ash disposal by CO2 fixation and mesoporous silica synthesis
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 883, 20 July 2023, 163822
Coal combustion provides plenty of energy, along with enormous coal fly ash (CFA) and CO2 emission. CFA could be recycled for mesoporous silica synthesis, but expensive templates are usually needed. In this work, we proposed a multi-win strategy using CO2 as the precipitator and template. Mesoporous silica powders, with a maximum specific surface area of 355.45 m2/g, a pore volume of 0.73 cm3/g, and an average pore size of around 7.67 nm, were synthesized. The influences of silicon concentration, CO2 flow rate, and ultrasound were investigated. In addition, the Na2CO3 by-product was produced with a purity of over 92 %. By averagely calculating, 1 ton CFA could generate 285 kg mesoporous silica and 1.02 t crude Na2CO3. Around 433 kg of CO2 could be absorbed. Therefore, multi-goals of CFA disposal, CO2 storage, and valuable silica materials production were realized, and the study could pave the way for large-scale industrial applications.
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