Trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 25-2022 với những nội dung chính như sau:
Về quản lý môi trường
– Đánh giá hiệu suất vốn tự nhiên của phát triển đô thị thông qua động lực hệ thống: Một nghiên cứu điển hình từ London.
– Mạng chia sẻ và các tính năng của chuỗi cung ứng để kiểm soát đồng bộ lượng khí thải carbon và chất gây ô nhiễm không khí.
– Khám phá vấn đề quản lý chất thải xanh trong chuỗi cung ứng thực phẩm: Bối cảnh kinh tế tuần hoàn.
– Làm thế nào để kiểm soát ô nhiễm không khí bằng các biện pháp kinh tế? Khám phá chính sách tài chính xanh của Trung Quốc.
– Hiệu trưởng đánh giá vòng đời môi trường đối với chất thải y tế trong đợt bùng phát COVID-19 để hỗ trợ các mục tiêu phát triển bền vững.
– Đánh giá các chiến lược quản lý chất thải ứng phó sự cố tràn dầu ngoài khơi: Khung dựa trên đánh giá vòng đời.
– Phân tích các yếu tố thúc đẩy sự thay đổi không gian trong chất lượng môi trường sinh thái khu vực bằng cách sử dụng hai loại mô hình phân bố loài: Một nghiên cứu điển hình về lưu vực sông Minjiang, Trung Quốc.
– Đánh giá toàn diện về cách tiếp cận tích hợp để quản lý bền vững chất thải nhựa và các yếu tố ngoại ứng liên quan.
– Một cách mới để sản xuất bền vững với môi trường với việc đánh giá sự chuyển đổi thông qua việc triển khai xanh các dự án Lean Six Sigma.
Về môi trường đô thị
– Loại bỏ và thu hồi photpho từ nước thải đô thị: Các phương pháp hiện tại và hướng đi mới.
– Tác động tử vong cục bộ do ô nhiễm không khí trong tương lai theo các kịch bản biến đổi khí hậu.
– Trường hợp đầu tiên phát hiện RNA SARS-CoV-2 trong nước rỉ rác thải rắn thành phố từ Brazil.
– Sulfonamide và tetracycline trong bãi rác rỉ ra từ bảy bãi chôn lấp chất thải rắn đô thị (MSW): Sự thay đổi theo mùa và đánh giá rủi ro.
– Ảnh hưởng của các bề mặt không thấm nước đến rủi ro sinh thái và các chiến lược kiểm soát ở các vùng đô thị hóa nhanh chóng.
– Sự phổ biến và đặc điểm của vi khuẩn kháng thuốc kháng sinh trong nước thải thô của cộng đồng từ các cộng đồng đô thị đa dạng.
– Đánh giá sản xuất hydro từ chất thải rắn đô thị như một lộ trình cạnh tranh để sản xuất H2 carbon thấp.
– Chuẩn bị than sinh học có nguồn gốc từ cặn lên men spiramycin để hấp phụ hiệu quả spiramycin từ nước thải.
– Ảnh hưởng của nguồn gốc chất cấy và tỷ lệ chất nền-chất cấy để tăng cường quá trình phân hủy kỵ khí đối với chất thải rắn đô thị thành phần hữu cơ (OFMSW).
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
– Giám sát di động VOC và xác định nguồn bằng cách sử dụng hai MS đầu vào trực tiếp trong một khu công nghiệp hóa chất dầu khí và tốt.
– Xử lý sinh học chất thải hữu cơ và triển vọng thay đổi của nó.
– Mối quan hệ giữa dioxin và hormone steroid ở trẻ 6 tuổi: Một nghiên cứu tiếp theo tại một khu vực chất thải điện tử của Trung Quốc.
– Ghi chép lịch sử về di sản và chất chống cháy halogen hóa thay thế trong trầm tích có niên đại từ một hồ nước mặn công nghiệp hóa cao ở Hàn Quốc.
– Xử lý nước thải chứa nitrat bằng quá trình hấp phụ sử dụng cacbon-nhựa biến tính polypyrrole: Đặc điểm và cơ chế.
– Vật liệu tổng hợp dựa trên than sinh học để xử lý nước thải ô nhiễm và môi trường đất: Thách thức và triển vọng.
– Nghiên cứu xử lý nước thải luyện dầu nhờn ngành thép bằng quy trình kỵ khí / hiếu khí.
– Các tác động môi trường trong vòng đời so sánh của sự thay đổi nguyên liệu hóa học được thúc đẩy bởi quá trình chuyển đổi hệ thống năng lượng: Một nghiên cứu điển hình từ ngành công nghiệp ethylene glycol của Trung Quốc.
Dưới dây là tên và phân tóm tắt các nghiên cứu bằng Tiếng Anh:
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. Does environmental audit help to improve water quality? Evidence from the China National Environmental Monitoring Centre
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 823, 1 June 2022, 153485
As an essential re-supervision system of the environmental regulation, the environmental audit can help improve the quality of the ecological environment by correcting the deviation of local governments’ environmental regulatory behavior. This study constructed a conceptual model of environmental audit affecting water quality, and empirically examined the effects and mechanism through the difference in difference (DID) regression and the mediating analysis. The panel data were collected from 76 cities covered by the surface water quality monitored by China Environmental Monitoring Station from 2006 to 2017. The results indicated that: (1) the overall effect of the environmental audit on the water quality was positive but not significant; (2) the environmental audit mainly encouraged local governments to strengthen superficial regulations with lower cost, more immediate and perceptible effects, but failed to promote the advanced regulation to reduce the pollution sources and fundamentally improve the water quality. On this basis, the policy implications were proposed that the environmental audit should be strengthened to further promote the advanced regulation and improve water quality constantly.
2. Evaluating natural capital performance of urban development through system dynamics: A case study from London
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 824, 10 June 2022, 153673
Natural capital plays a central role in urban functioning, reducing flooding, mitigating urban heat island effects, reducing air pollution, and improving urban biodiversity through provision of habitat space. There is also evidence on the role played by blue and green space in improving physical and mental health, reducing the burden on the health care service. Yet from an urban planning and development view, natural capital may be considered a nice to have, but not essential element of urban design; taking up valuable space which could otherwise be used for traditional built environment uses. While urban natural capital is largely recognised as a positive element, its benefits are difficult to measure both in space and time, making its inclusion in urban (re)development difficult to justify. Here, using a London case study and information provided by key stakeholders, we present a system dynamics (SD) modelling framework to assess the natural capital performance of development and aid design evaluation. A headline indicator: Natural Space Performance, is used to evaluate the capacity of natural space to provide ecosystem services, providing a semi-quantitative measure of system wide impacts of change within a combined natural, built and social system. We demonstrate the capacity of the model to explore how combined or individual changes in development design can affect natural capital and the provision of ecosystem services, for example, biodiversity or flood risk. By evaluating natural capital and ecosystem services over time, greater justification for their inclusion in planning and development can be derived, providing support for increased blue and green space within cities, improving urban sustainability and enhancing quality of life. Furthermore, the application of a SD approach captures key interactions between variables over time, showing system evolution while highlighting intervention opportunities.
3. Persistent mitigation efforts and implications for China’s emissions peak using statistical projections
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 826, 20 June 2022, 154127
To keep global warming below 2 °C by 2100, as per the Paris Agreement, China has announced to peak its CO2 emissions before 2030. Several studies have explored the emissions trajectories in China, but it is as yet uncertain how persistent mitigation efforts of individual provinces and sectors will impact the achievement of ambitious emissions reduction goal. Here we develop a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Bayesian analysis with a modified Kaya identity to project the CO2 emissions in China before 2050. We find that, with persistent mitigation efforts, China can reach an emissions peak in 2032 at 13395 Mt. CO2, which is later than its announced time. Moreover, China’s total emissions will reduce slowly after peaking time, with an average annual reduction rate of 0.47%. There are 15 provinces whose emissions will peak before 2030, while 11 provinces can peak during 2030–2050, and 4 provinces can hardly obtain the peak before 2050. Future emission decreases result from the interplay between a rapid reduction driven by decreasing emission intensities, especially in industry, against the increases from economic and population growth. In addition, we find an important mitigation impact from economic structure shift towards services. Such information will be necessary for China’s future low-carbon development and will provide implications for policy making.
4. Shared network and supply chain features for synergetic control of carbon and air pollutant emissions
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 827, 25 June 2022, 154391
The synergetic control of carbon and air pollutant emissions will be an unflagging effort for China in its dual pursuit of air quality improvement and carbon neutrality. The shared features of sectoral emissions from network and supply chain perspectives, as well as the evolution of these features under policy intervention remain to be investigated. This study develops four ecological networks for CO2 and SO2 emissions targeting the period 2010–2015 with strengthened emission control implemented. By fusing input-output analysis, Ecological Network Analysis and Structural Path Analysis, the shared intersectoral linkages of emissions are examined, and the key supply chains are identified. The results indicate that most sectors have control over Transportation Equipment, Electronic Equipment, and Construction, and almost all sectors have dependence on Power and Heat. Exploitative relationships induced by emission flows along supply chains are predominant, accounting for over 60% for four emission flow networks. Eight shared supply chains are identified among the top 20 that generally induce larger than 50% emissions in both 2010 and 2015. The one with the largest emissions is “Total capital formation → Construction → Nonmetals”. During 2010–2015, the critical evolution of network features is the decrease in the economy’s control over Construction, dependence on Fossil Energy Mining, and emissions contained in the paths associated with exports. The findings help to more pertinently strategize on prescient regulation of key supply chains for a more effective carbon-pollution synergetic control.
5. Spatiotemporal PM2.5 estimations in China from 2015 to 2020 using an improved gradient boosting decision tree
Chemosphere, Volume 296, June 2022, 134003
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with spatiotemporal continuity can provide important basis for the assessment of adverse effects on human health. In recent years, researchers have done a lot of work on the surface PM2.5 simulation. However, due to the limitations of data and models, it is difficult to accurately evaluate the spatial and temporal PM2.5 variations on a fine scale. In this study, we adopted the multi-angle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC) aerosol products, and proposed a spatiotemporal model based on the gradient boosting decision tree (GBDT) algorithm to retrieve PM2.5 concentration across China from 2015 to 2020 at 1-km resolution. Our model achieved excellent performance, with overall CV-R2 of 0.92, and annual CV-R2 of 0.90–0.93. In addition, the model can also be used for evaluation on different time scales. Compared with previous studies, the model developed in our study performed better and more stable, which showed the highest accuracies in PM2.5 estimation works at 1-km resolution. During the study period, the overall national PM2.5 pollution showed a downward trend, with the annual mean concentration dropping from 42.42 μg/m3 to 27.91 μg/m3. The largest decrease occurred in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), with a trend of −5.17 μg/m3/yr, while it remains the most polluted region. The area meeting the secondary national air quality standard (<35 μg/m3) increased from ∼34% to ∼79%. These results indicate that the atmospheric environment has improved significantly. Moreover, different regions have different time nodes for the start of the continuous standard-met day during the year, and the duration is different as well. Overall, this study can provide reliable large-scale PM2.5 estimations.
6. Impacts of the differences in PM2.5 air quality improvement on regional transport and health risk in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region during 2013–2017
Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134179
Due to the implementation of different air pollution control measures in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region during 2013–2017, the air quality exhibited varied improvements in each province, indicating substantial changes in the interprovincial regional transport of PM2.5. In this study, we investigated these changes by using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model coupled with the integrated source apportionment method (ISAM) during this period. The results showed that the concentrations of primary particles, SO42−, and NO3− decreased by 41.5, 40.8, and 1.8%, respectively due to the air pollutants emission reduction. Local air pollutant emissions were the predominant contributors of PM2.5 for each region in BTH, accounting for 41.3–47.6, 38.1–40.6, 50.6–53.6, and 54.0–57.1% of PM2.5 in Beijing, Tianjin, and northern and southern Hebei, respectively. Total PM2.5 has been mitigated by 7.1–12.3 and 5.1–11.7 μg/m3 from local and regional emission reduction, respectively in the BTH. Moreover, diverse local meteorological conditions variation increased the PM2.5 concentration by 5.3 μg/m3 in Tianjin and decreased it by 7.6, 2.0, and 4.9 μg/m3 in Beijing, and northern and southern Hebei, respectively. Estimation by integrated exposure-response function revealed that the number of premature deaths attributable to PM2.5 exposure decreased by approximately 3000 in the BTH region during 2013–2017. Additional policies that focus on PM2.5-O3 coordinated control and stringent regional joint air pollution regulation are required to substantially reduce the health impacts, especially in southern Hebei.
7. A new way of environmentally sustainable manufacturing with assessing transformation through the green deployment of Lean Six Sigma projects
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 351, 1 June 2022, 131510
Green deployment of Continuous Improvement (CI) projects such as Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is unknown among scholars and practitioners in contrast with green outcomes of LSS. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify top factors to transform towards the green deployment of LSS projects as an untapped phenomenon for scholars and practitioners. A survey questionnaire was distributed globally to collect the data from LSS practitioners and consultants followed by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) as a statistical dimension reduction method via Statistical Package for Social sciences (SPSS) software. New dimensions for critical success factors (CSFs), critical failure factors (CFFs) and barriers, and motivators were revealed to recommend top factors for green LSS project deployment. In addition to some factors similar to green LSS integration for green outcomes, we found some new factors suggested for green deployment of LSS projects. However, scarcity was also found in green LSS deployment for practitioners and scholars. Further in-depth studies including case studies could be conducted to assess the negative environmental impact of LSS projects. This study serves as an initial call for managers, consultants and research scholars to favour the sustainable deployment of LSS projects in manufacturing alongside the use of traditional approaches with a focus on costs, quality and delivery. This is the first study exposing the possibility of a paradigm shift in environmental sustainability integration with LSS project deployment in manufacturing operations.
8. Exploring the green waste management problem in food supply chains: A circular economy context
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 351, 1 June 2022, 131355
Food waste management is a growing environmental and economic issue for a developing country like India. This exploratory paper aims to prioritize key practices as “criteria” for food supply chains that lead to food waste reduction to ensure green waste management. Twenty-five criteria from the existing literature and expert inputs were assessed to resolve food waste reduction issues in food supply chains, especially in the agricultural sectors. The study identifies and ranks the intensities of each of the listed criteria. In the study, the Best-Worst Method, a multi-criteria decision-making approach, is applied. According to the findings, waste prevention at the earlier stages of food supply chains is given more priority compared to food waste minimization and treatment at the later stages. Hence, the study concludes “skill and training” as the highest ranked criteria, followed by “protection and infrastructure.” Further, the study infers that understanding the individual intensities of criteria within a food supply chain can affect waste generation at each level, having a significant impact on waste reduction. The data in this research was evaluated in the Indian context.
9. How to control air pollution with economic means? Exploration of China’s green finance policy
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 353, 15 June 2022, 131664
Air pollution is not only an environmental problem, but also an economic problem. Faced with the deteriorating air pollution, the role of financial institutions is increasingly valued. Because different air pollutants come from diverse sources, the same economic means have different impacts. To investigate this question, this paper adopts difference-in-differences to test China’s green finance policy issued in 2017. The results indicate that green finance policy is capable of controlling overall situation of air pollution. As for the specific six pollutants, it shows superiority in reducing SO2, NO2 and PM2.5, but inferiority in reducing CO, O3 and PM10. Besides, the control effects of green finance policy are through local companies’ economic behaviors. Compared with the economically developed regions, the emission reduction effects of green finance policy in the economically underdeveloped regions are better. These findings offer references for how to control air pollution with economic means from the perspective of micro practice.
10. System dynamics modeling of food-energy-water resource security in a megacity of China: Insights from the case of Beijing
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 355, 25 June 2022, 131773
To ensure food, energy, and water (FEW) security in urban areas with high-density populations and concentrated social economic activities, it is imperative to build a better understanding of the dynamics of urban FEW systems. Using the STELLA platform, a system dynamics model named the BJ-FEW was developed by incorporating both the production and consumption sides of FEW systems into a single system-of-system model that considered the interactions between the FEW sectors within and beyond the urban economic system. This model was run for the megacity of Beijing over the period from 2000 to 2050 to simulate changes in the FEW demand and supply. Results showed that Beijing City will face an increasing challenge of FEW resource security with regard to the enlarging gap between the total demands and the local provision capability. Under the baseline scenario without policy intervention, the total demand for food, energy, and water in Beijing will incredibly reach 10 Mt, 129 Mtce, and 6.4 Bm3 in 2050. In such case, it was estimated that 75% of food, 88% of energy, and 48% of water will depend on trans-boundary imports. The implement of Xiong’an New Area Plan will be the indispensable development pathway to alleviate resource pressure in Beijing. The scenario analysis verified the positive effect of such program, which will improve the status of the resource system by reducing 15%, 29%, and 34% of the supply-demand gap for food, energy, and water. The results highlighted the necessity of a regional coordinated management strategy to build a more resilient FEW provision system.
11. A comprehensive review on integrative approach for sustainable management of plastic waste and its associated externalities
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 825, 15 June 2022, 153973
The management of post-consumer discarded plastic wastes (PCPW) creates new challenges in developing countries due to the lack of amenities, technological interventions, and associated negative environmental externalities. The fate of untreated recyclable and non-recyclable plastic wastes lies in open dumping along with other solid waste, and improper management leads to environmental externalities such as pollution, global climate change, and health issues. Additionally, open dumping upsurges the emerging microplastics and nano plastics (MNPs) contaminants. The externalities depend on the waste generating sources (household, industries, commercial), waste composition, and its characteristics. However, urban mining can minimize environmental externalities where waste plastics can convert into potential anthropogenic resources and also helps in achieving the target of sustainable development goals (SDGs 11 & 12). Moreover, various treatment technologies that help in the sustainable utilization of plastic wastes are extensively reviewed in this study and evaluate the costs benefits arising during various stages of treating plastic waste through recycling (R), incineration (I), and landfilling (L). The recycling of plastic waste has demonstrated the lowest impact on global warming potential (GWP) and total energy use (TEU), followed by landfilling and incineration (R < L < I). Nevertheless, when energy is recovered from inert (non-recyclable) plastic waste in the form of fuel or by its utilization in construction purposes, the environmental impacts are more negligible (Incineration < Landfilling). Therefore, this study determines the significance of circular economy with legislative approach and standards on plastic waste management, which help in reducing environmental externalities besides yielding a secondary resource as energy and materials through urban mining. A sustainable plastic waste management (SPWM) model is proposed for developing countries to convert plastic waste into resources and use it as a sustainable tool in urban mining.
12. Analyses of driving factors on the spatial variations in regional eco-environmental quality using two types of species distribution models: A case study of Minjiang River Basin, China
Ecological Indicators, Volume 139, June 2022, 108980
Understanding the spatial variations in regional eco-environmental quality and their driving factors is essential for environmental management and protection. However, the lack of quantitative analyses in relevant studies has often hindered the formulation and implementation of effective eco-environmental policies. Taking Minjiang River Basin as an example, we used the remote sensing ecological indices (RSEI) to objectively and quantitatively characterize the eco-environmental quality. We also introduced and compared the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and the random forest models to identify the critical driving factors. Results showed that the eco-environmental quality of Minjiang River Basin in 2020 was good overall, and the areas with good or excellent eco-environmental quality accounted for 58%. The areas with poor eco-environmental quality were mainly distributed in the periphery of the basin and the riverine areas. Both the MaxEnt and the random forest models were applicable to identify the critical driving factors and indicated that the degrees of landscape fragmentation and drastic land use were the main factors causing spatial variation of eco-environmental quality in the Minjiang River Basin. This study provides a new perspective and method for quantitative analysis of the driving factors of the spatial variations in regional eco-environmental quality for future eco-environmental management and protection.
13. Evaluation of offshore oil spill response waste management strategies: A lifecycle assessment-based framework
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 432, 15 June 2022, 128659
This study presents a novel life cycle assessment-based framework for low-impact offshore oil spill response waste (OSRW) management. The framework consists of design of experiment, life cycle assessment (LCA), multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), operational cost analysis, and generation of regression models for impact prediction. The framework is applied to four OSRW management strategies as different combinations of solid and liquid oily waste collection, segregation, transportation, and treatment/disposal technologies. Hypothetical scenarios based on oily waste compositions are developed, and the associated environmental impacts and operational costs are evaluated. The LCA results show that oily waste composition accounts for < 5% of the total environmental impacts. Chemical demulsification has the highest total impacts due to high marine ecotoxicity and human toxicity, followed by incineration and transportation. The cost analysis reveals that the strategy comprised of centrifugation and landfilling is most preferable while the combination of chemical demulsification and incineration is least favorable. The strategy of combined use of centrifugation and landfilling is ranked as the most suitable in the MCDA. Regression models are developed to predict environmental impacts based on important factors. The framework can help waste management practitioners select low-impact strategies for handling offshore OSRW.
14. Principal of environmental life cycle assessment for medical waste during COVID-19 outbreak to support sustainable development goals
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 827, 25 June 2022, 154416
Disposal of medical waste (MW) must be considered as a vital need to prevent the spread of pandemics during Coronavirus disease of the pandemic in 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in the globe. In addition, many concerns have been raised due to the significant increase in the generation of MW in recent years. A structured evaluation is required as a framework for the quantifying of potential environmental impacts of the disposal of MW which ultimately leads to the realization of sustainable development goals (SDG). Life cycle assessment (LCA) is considered as a practical approach to examine environmental impacts of any potential processes during all stages of a product’s life, including material mining, manufacturing, and delivery. As a result, LCA is known as a suitable method for evaluating environmental impacts for the disposal of MW. In this research, existing scenarios for MW with a unique approach to emergency scenarios for the management of COVID-19 medical waste (CMW) are investigated. In the next step, LCA and its stages are defined comprehensively with the CMW management approach. Moreover, ReCiPe2016 is the most up-to-date method for computing environmental damages in LCA. Then the application of this method for defined scenarios of CMW is examined, and interpretation of results is explained regarding some examples. In the last step, the process of selecting the best environmental-friendly scenario is illustrated by applying weighting analysis. Finally, it can be concluded that LCA can be considered as an effective method to evaluate the environmental burden of CMW management scenarios in present critical conditions of the world to support SDG.
15. The operational mechanism and effectiveness of China’s central environmental protection inspection: Evidence from air pollution
Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Volume 81, June 2022, 101215
As a practice of campaign-style pollution control, the central environmental inspection has great guiding significance for China’s environmental management system reform. This paper analyzes the operational mechanism of central environmental protection inspection from the perspective of multi-governance and tests its effectiveness from both theory and empirical evidence. We find that the central environmental protection inspection can improve environmental quality. However, the air quality improvement of non-key cities of environmental protection is better than that of key cities of environmental protection. Besides, the effectiveness of the central environmental protection inspection is unsustainable. The results show that the direct intervention of the power of the Party Central Committee and the central government is a significant driving force to realize the improvement of the environmental quality by playing the role of the multi-governance model in the environment. The continuous environmental participation of the Party Central Committee and the central government is the guarantee for achieving the continuous operation of the multi-government model and maintaining the effect of environmental quality improvement.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. An examination of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) accessibility and opportunity in urban informal settlements during the COVID-19 pandemic: Evidence from Nairobi, Kenya
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 823, 1 June 2022, 153398
This research examines water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) accessibility and opportunity in Kibera and Mathare during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021. Kibera and Mathare are two of the largest urban informal settlements in Nairobi (the capital city of Kenya) as well as Sub-Saharan Africa. Accessibility indicates how easily a person can reach WASH facilities from their home by walking. Opportunity represents how many WASH options a person has near their home. We utilize the data on water and toilet facilities collected by GroundTruth Initiative in partnership with Map Kibera Trust (local community partners) between February and April 2021 – amid the COVID-19 pandemic. By conducting quantitative geospatial analysis, we illustrate WASH accessibility and related issues that were not evident in previous studies: (1) 77.4% of people living in Kibera have limited WASH facility accessibility or opportunity; (2) 60.6% of people living in Mathare have limited WASH facility accessibility or opportunity; (3) there is a clear geographic pattern in WASH facility accessibility and opportunity; and (4) overall accessibility and opportunity is better in Mathare than in Kibera. This study is one of the first studies to examine WASH accessibility and opportunity in urban informal settlements during the COVID-19 pandemic by utilizing the current data and quantitative geospatial methods. Based on the results, we discuss important public health policy implications for people living in urban informal settlements to improve their WASH facility accessibility and opportunity during the COVID-19 pandemic.
2. Valorization of UWWTP effluents for ammonium recovery and MC elimination by advanced AOPs
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 823, 1 June 2022, 153693
The main objective of this study was to generate ready-to-use revalorized irrigation water for fertilization from urban wastewater treatment plant (UWWTP) effluents. The focus was on controlled retention of NH4+ and microcontaminants (MC), using nanofiltration. Retentates generated were treated by solar photo-Fenton at circumneutral pH using Ethylenediamine-N, N′-disuccinic acid (EDDS) iron complexing agent. Solar photo-Fenton degradation efficacy was compared with electrooxidation processes as anodic oxidation, solar-assisted anodic oxidation, electro-Fenton and solar photoelectro Fenton. Finally, phytotoxicity and acute toxicity tests were performed to demonstrate the potentially safe reuse of treated wastewater for crop irrigation. Nanofiltration was able to produce a ready-to-use permeate stream containing recovered NH4+. (valuable nutrient). Solar photo-Fenton treatment at circumneutral pH would only be of interest for rapid degradation of contaminants at less than 1 mg/L in nanofiltration retentates. Other alternative tertiary treatments, such as electrooxidation processes, are a promising alternative when a high concentration of MC requires longer process times. Anodic oxidation was demonstrated to be able to eliminate >80% of microcontaminants and solar-assisted anodic oxidation significantly reduced the electricity consumption. Electro-Fenton processes were the least efficient of the processes tested. Phytotoxicity results showed that irrigation with the permeates reduced germination, root development was mainly promoted and shoot development was positive only at low retention rate (concentration factor = 2). Acute and chronic Daphnia magna toxicity studies demonstrated that the permeate volumes should be diluted at least 50% before direct reuse for crop irrigation.
3. Phosphorous removal and recovery from urban wastewater: Current practices and new directions
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 823, 1 June 2022, 153750
Phosphate rocks are an irreplaceable resource to produce fertilizers, but their availability will not be enough to meet the increasing demands of agriculture for food production. At the same time, the accumulation of phosphorous discharged by municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is one of the main causes of eutrophication. In a perspective of circular economy, WWTPs play a key role in phosphorous management. Indeed, phosphorus removal and recovery from WWTPs can both reduce the occurrence of eutrophication and contribute to meeting the demand for phosphorus-based fertilizers. Phosphorous removal and recovery are interconnected phases in WWTP with the former generally involved in the mainstream treatment, while the latter on the side streams. Indeed, by reducing phosphorus concentration in the WWTP side streams, a further improvement of the overall phosphorus removal from the WWTP influent can be obtained. Many studies and patents have been recently focused on treatments and processes aimed at the removal and recovery of phosphorous from wastewater and sewage sludge. Notably, new advances on biological and material sciences are constantly put at the service of conventional or unconventional wastewater treatments to increase the phosphorous removal efficiency and/or reduce the treatment costs. Similarly, many studies have been devoted to the development of processes aimed at the recovery of phosphorus from wastewaters and sludge to produce fertilizers, and a wide range of recovery percentages is reported as a function of the different technologies applied (from 10–25% up to 70–90% of the phosphorous in the WWTP influent). In view of forthcoming and inevitable regulations on phosphorous removal and recovery from WWTP streams, this review summarizes the main recent advances in this field to provide the scientific and technical community with an updated and useful tool for choosing the best strategy to adopt during the design or upgrading of WWTPs.
4. Local mortality impacts due to future air pollution under climate change scenarios
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 823, 1 June 2022, 153832
The health impacts of global climate change mitigation will affect local populations differently. However, most co-benefits analyses have been done at a global level, with relatively few studies providing local level results. We aimed to quantify the local health impacts due to fine particles (PM2.5) under the governance arrangements embedded in the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs1–5) under two greenhouse gas concentration scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6 and 8.5) in local populations of Mozambique, India, and Spain. We simulated the SSP-RCP scenarios using the Global Change Analysis Model, which was linked to the TM5-FASST model to estimate PM2.5 levels. PM2.5 levels were calibrated with local measurements. We used comparative risk assessment methods to estimate attributable premature deaths due to PM2.5 linking local population and mortality data with PM2.5–mortality relationships from the literature, and incorporating population projections under the SSPs. PM2.5 attributable burdens in 2050 differed across SSP-RCP scenarios, and sensitivity of results across scenarios varied across populations. Future attributable mortality burden of PM2.5 was highly sensitive to assumptions about how populations will change according to SSP. SSPs reflecting high challenges for adaptation (SSPs 3 and 4) consistently resulted in the highest PM2.5 attributable burdens mid-century. Our analysis of local PM2.5 attributable premature deaths under SSP-RCP scenarios in three local populations highlights the importance of both socioeconomic development and climate policy in reducing the health burden from air pollution. Sensitivity of future PM2.5 mortality burden to SSPs was particularly evident in low- and middle- income country settings due either to high air pollution levels or dynamic populations.
5. First case of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in municipal solid waste leachate from Brazil
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 824, 10 June 2022, 153927
This work presents the first case of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in leachate collected from a transfer station in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. After calibration of the viral detection method already used for wastewater samples with a pilot leachate sample and virus fragments in laboratory, twelve polyethylene glycol concentrated leachates samples were tested by RT-qPCR. The results confirmed the presence of N1 gene in 9 of the 12 analyzed samples between epidemiological weeks 33 and 38 of the year 2021 (08/15/2021 to 09/19/2021). The occurrence of the N2 gene was only observed in 5 of the 12 samples. The concentration values for N1 and N2 genes varied between 3.1 and 4.6 log10.GC·L−1, which are values close to those measured in sanitary wastewater. This method showed to be a promising procedure to verify the presence of viral RNA in municipal solid waste leachate, being especially useful where there is no treatment system and sanitation infrastructure, which makes the conventional wastewater surveillance unfeasible.
6. Sulfonamide and tetracycline in landfill leachates from seven municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills: Seasonal variation and risk assessment
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 825, 15 June 2022, 153936
Antibiotics have received increased attention as emerging contaminants due to their toxicity and potential risk. Landfills serve as one of the important reservoirs of antibiotics. The antibiotics in landfills leaching to nearby environment by leachate may threat ecosystem health. The present study aimed to evaluate the levels of tetracyclines (TCs) and sulfonamides (SAs) in seven Chinese Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfill leachates over two years (2017–2018). Seven target antibiotics, TC, oxytetracycline (OTC), doxycycline (DXC), sulfonamide sulfadiazine (SD), sulfamerazine (SM), sulfamethazine (SMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMT), were detected in 56 landfill leachate samples. Among these, SMT had the highest mean concentration at 654 ng/L (n = 45), followed by OTC (219.58 ng/L, n = 47), and SD (209.98 ng/L, n = 49). The temporal trend showed that antibiotic concentrations were higher in 2017 than in 2018. Furthermore, physicochemical properties were significantly correlated with SAs (p < 0.05), whereas no significant correlation was found for TCs. Seasonal variation analysis revealed that antibiotic levels were higher in spring and winter compared to summer and fall seasons, which might be attributed to the higher waterfall levels in these seasons. Risk assessment revealed that SAs (SM, SMX, SMT) are associated with high risk, and the RQs follow the order of: SMX > SMT > SM. In contrast, TCs had insignificant risk. The findings of this two-year comprehensive monitoring project have produced positive results regarding antibiotic pollution at landfill sites, which can be applied to antibiotics management in landfill and further ensure public health.
7. Influences of impervious surfaces on ecological risks and controlling strategies in rapidly urbanizing regions
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 825, 15 June 2022, 153823
Reducing ecological risks is important for promoting regional sustainable development. However, studies on the influence of impervious surfaces on ecological risks and risk control strategies in regions undergoing rapid urbanization are limited. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the spatial-temporal dynamics of regional ecological risks using Beijing as a case study to reveal the influence of impervious surfaces and explore the controlling strategies of risks. We first characterized the ecological risks in Beijing based on the ecosystem service values and mapped the risk levels and temporal variations in risks. We then identified the ecological risk increases caused by impervious surface expansion and built linear regression models for impervious surface coverage (ISC) and risk index. Finally, we formulated ecological risk control strategies for the strategy categories identified based on the ISC thresholds. The results show that the mountainous areas mainly exhibited low ecological risk levels, and the plain areas mainly showed high levels. The expansion of impervious surface was the main cause of the relatively large temporal increase in ecological risks from 2005 to 2015. Moreover, the strategies for ecological risk control can be divided into four categories based on the division of ISC, with 30%, 70%, and 90% as the thresholds. For risk control strategies, reducing ISC is the most important measure to reduce ecological risks for the category with an ISC range of 90%–100%, and increasing the area proportions of forests and water bodies is the most effective measure for the category with an ISC range of 0%–30%. For the other two categories, controlling the ISC and other strategies are required. Our study can increase the understanding of the influences of impervious surfaces on ecological risks in rapidly urbanizing regions and help inform the formulation of strategies for controlling the ecological risks in Beijing.
8. Prevalence and characterization of antibiotic resistant bacteria in raw community sewage from diverse urban communities
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 825, 15 June 2022, 153926
Community sewage is a useful medium for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance of populations residing in urban dwellings as it provides the resolution of tracking sources of AMR from different waste streams within a community. Antibiotic resistance profiles of 4 opportunistic pathogens were compared from 3 sewage sources: raw community sewage from 2 housing estates, a foreign workers dormitory and a pet centre. Sewage was collected from receiving manholes and a culture-based method was used to quantify opportunistic pathogens Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus spp. K. pneumoniae was the most prevalent opportunistic pathogen detected while P. aeruginosa was the least abundant across the sample. A total of 892 bacterial isolates were selected for antibiotic susceptibility testing using the VITEKⓇ 2 Compact System (bioMérieux, Singapore). E. coli isolated from the pet centre exhibited higher resistance towards all 16 antibiotics tested, and P. aeruginosa showed at least 75% resistance towards the classes of antibiotics, except for carbapenems, aminoglycosides and quinolones (below 30%). For K. pneumoniae, resistance towards the classes of antibiotics was below 10%, except for penicillin and nitrofurans. Enterococcus spp. had high resistance towards gentamicin and clindamycin (both almost 100%), while resistance towards vancomycin was below 18% for all 4 locations. Multidrug resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa and Enterococcus spp. showed the highest prevalence with percentages above 96%. MDR E. coli and MDR K. pneumoniae was lower, ranging between 9% to 54% and 8% to 23% respectively. Highest prevalence of MDR E. coli and K. pneumoniae were detected in the pet centre, with a percentage of 54% and 23% respectively. These results show that wastewater based surveillance is not only a useful method of understanding emerging trends of AMR across the community but also provides the resolution of capturing AMR data from key sewage sources based on population demographics. This information could provide a basis for devising better control measures to mitigate the spread of MDR.
9. A comprehensive emission inventory of hazardous air pollutants from municipal solid waste incineration in China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 826, 20 June 2022, 154212
The Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) released from increasing municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants have drawn great concerns in China. However, a full picture of their emission characteristics is still urgently needed, especially after the implementation of stricter emission limits on MSWI. In this study, a comprehensive historical emission inventory of HAPs emitted from MSWI plants in China during the period of 2006–2017 was dedicatedly established by integrating with detailed plant-level activity data and renewed localized emission factors. Overall, HAPs emissions initially increased with years, then peaked or slowed increase in the year 2014, but leveled off after 2016 due to the gradually and fully implementing of newly revised national emission standard (GB18485–2014) applied to mainland China and much stricter local standards for several provinces and cities. It was estimated that totally 50,716 tons (t) of NOx, 13,026 t of CO, 7988 t of SO2, 4399 t of PM, 1943 t of HCl, 9916 kg of Pb, 5901 kg of Mn, 4805 kg of Cu, 3574 kg of Cr, 3329 kg of Ni, 2154 kg of Hg, 1168 kg of Cd, 862 kg of As, 409 kg of Co, 216 kg of Sb, 13 kg of Tl, and 19 g toxic equivalent quantity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans were emitted from 337 MSWI plants scattered in 30 provinces of mainland China in 2017, respectively. HAPs emissions were heavily concentrated in developed coastal provinces and cities. Scenario analysis highlighted the importance of continuous improvement and upgrade on advanced air pollution control devices and MSWI management to meet the future ultra-low emission limits and minimize the harmful impacts of HAPs on atmospheric environment and public health.
10. Assessment of hydrogen production from municipal solid wastes as competitive route to produce low-carbon H2
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 827, 25 June 2022, 154393
An economic and CO2 emission impact assessment of the production of H2 from municipal solid waste in the two configurations of retrofitting an existing waste to energy plant with an electrolysis unit (WtE + El) and of hydrogen production via waste gasification (WtH2) is made with respect to reference cases of H2 production by steam reforming of methane (SMR) or of water electrolysis (El). The results are analyzed with reference to two scenarios depending on whether the fate of waste disposal emissions for SMR and El is accounted. The costs of H2 production as a function of waste gate fee and CO2 taxation as well as the CO2 emissions for both scenarios and the four cases of H2 production analyzed are reported. The results show that produce H2 from a WtE plant hybridized with an electrolyzer could be economic only when the plant is free from depreciation costs and no CO2 taxation exists. Conversely, WtH2 solution results preferable when CO2 taxation will be applied to the non-biogenic fraction of waste. Conditions when WtH2 may results competitive to SMR are defined, in terms of both cost of production and CO2 emissions. With respect to El case, WtH2 results more competitive under the assumption made in terms of combined costs and CO2 emissions.
11. Preparation of spiramycin fermentation residue derived biochar for effective adsorption of spiramycin from wastewater
Chemosphere, Volume 296, June 2022, 133902
Spiramycin (SPI) fermentation residue (SFR) is classified as hazardous waste in China because of the residual antibiotics in it. SFR disposal in the traditional way is costly and wasteful of resources. In this study, pyrolysis method was adopted to covert SFR to biochar for SPI removal from wastewater, and the SPI adsorption performance was investigated. The results showed that the optimal pyrolysis temperature was 700 °C as the prepared biochar BC700 exhibited the highest SPI removal efficiency. The specific surface area of BC700 was 451.68 m2/g, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 147.28 mg/g. The adsorption mechanism involved electrostatic interaction, pore filling, π-π interaction, hydrogen bonding, and the participation of C–C and O–Cdouble bondO functional groups in the adsorption. No residual SPI was detected in BC700 indicating the detoxification of SFR was achieved. Moreover, after recycling for 5 times, the SPI removal efficiency was still higher than 80.0%. Therefore, this study could provide a promising method for SFR disposal.
12. Sonoelectrochemical activation of peroxymonosulfate: Influencing factors and mechanism of FA degradation, and application on landfill leachate treatment
Chemosphere, Volume 296, June 2022, 133365
In this work, sonoelectrochemically activated peroxymonosulfate (US-EC/PMS) was used to degrade fulvic acid (FA) in water. Compared with other technologies, the US-EC/PMS system can achieve higher FA decolorization in a short time. Moreover, the benefits of synergy are more prominent in the US-EC/PMS system. The effects of operating parameters on the sonoelectrochemical degradation of FA were investigated, including initial pH, initial FA concentration, current density, ultrasonic power, PMS dosage. The results showed the initial FA concentration and current density were critical to the degradation of FA. Under optimized parameters: initial pH of 2, 50 mg L−1 initial FA concentration, 30 mA cm−2 current density, 50 W ultrasonic power, 1 mM PMS dosage, the US-EC/PMS system can achieve 93% FA decolorization. The calculation results of current efficiency and energy consumption indicate that the introduction of PMS into the US-EC system has economic applicability. Scavenger experiments and electron paramagnetic resonance suggest that hydroxyl radicals, sulfate radicals, and singlet oxygen were the main ROS produced in the US-EC/PMS system. Accordingly, the possible mechanism of FA degradation by sonoelectrochemical activation PMS was proposed. Finally, the US-EC/PMS system was used to treat the aged landfill leachate. Three-dimensional fluorescence analysis showed that most of the humic substances (Hss) were effectively removed, and the biodegradability of the leachate was considerably improved. In addition, the effective removal of COD, chroma, and ammonia nitrogen were observed, proving that this technology is a powerful means to treat organic wastewater contaminated by Hss.
13. Effect of inoculum origin and substrate-inoculum ratio to enhance the anaerobic digestion of organic fraction municipal solid waste (OFMSW)
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 351, 1 June 2022, 131539
This study evaluated the key role of inoculum in mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste. The effect of two different inocula, the mesophilic digestate of wastewater activated sludge (WAS) and the mesophilic digestate of cow-agriculture sludge (CAS), at three different substrate: inoculum ratios (1:2, 1:1 and 2:1) at three different incubation times (0, 5 and 10 d) were studied in batch feeding reactor for a total of 18 AD configurations. The AD configurations were study through specific biogas and methane productions, first order disintegration kinetics, Gompertz modified study and energy sustainable index. A multi criteria decision aid outranked the 18 AD configurations tested. The study proved that the AD performed with inoculum CAS incubated for 10 d at 2:1 substrate inoculum ratio reached the highest biogas yield and methene content equal to 997.81 NL/kgVS and 70.00% v/v.
14. City-level greenness exposure is associated with COVID-19 incidence in China
Environmental Research, Volume 209, June 2022, 112871
Accumulating studies have suggested an important role of environmental factors (e.g. air pollutants) on the occurrence and development of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Evidence concerning the relationship of greenness on COVID-19 is still limited. This study aimed to assess the association between greenness and COVID-19 incidence in 266 Chinese cities. A total of 12,377 confirmed COVID-19 cases were identified through February 29th, 2020. We used the average normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) during January and February 2020 from MOD13A2 product, to represent the city-level greenness exposure. A generalized linear mixed-effects model was used to estimate the association between NDVI exposure and COVID-19 incidence using COVID-19 cases as the outcome. We evaluated whether the association was modified by population density, GDP per capita, and urbanization rate, and was mediated by air pollutants. We also performed a series of sensitivity analyses to discuss the robustness of our results. Per 0.1 unit increment in NDVI was negatively associated with COVID-19 incidence (IRR: 0.921, 95% CI: 0.898, 0.944) after adjustment for confounders. Associations with COVID-19 incidence were stronger in cities with lower population density, lower GDP per capita, and lower urbanization rate. We failed to detect any mediation effect of air pollutants on the association between NDVI and COVID-19 incidence. Sensitivity analyses also indicated consistent estimates. In conclusion, our study suggested a beneficial association between city-level greenness and COVID-19 incidence. We could not establish which mechanisms may explain this relationship.
15. Changes in stoichiometric characteristics of ambient air pollutants pre-to post-COVID-19 in China
Environmental Research, Volume 209, June 2022, 112806
To prevent the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreading, Chinese government takes a series of corresponding measures to restrict human mobility, including transportation lock-down and industries suspension, which significantly influenced the ambient air quality and provided vary rare time windows to assess the impacts of anthropological activities on air pollution. In this work, we divided the studied timeframe (2019/12/24–2020/2/24) into four periods and selected 88 cities from 31 representative urban agglomerations. The indicators of PM2.5/PM10 and NO2/SO2 were applied, for the first time, to analyze the changes in stoichiometric characteristics of ambient air pollutants pre-to post-COVID-19 in China. The results indicated that the ratios of NO2/SO2 presented a responding decline, especially in YRD (−5.01), YH (−3.87), and MYR (−3.84), with the sharp reduction of traffic in post-COVID-19 periods (P3–P4: 2.34 ± 0.94 m/m) comparing with pre-COVID-19 periods (P1–P2: 4.49 ± 2.03 m/m). Whereas the ratios of PM2.5/PM10 increased in P1–P3, then decreased in P4 with relatively higher levels (>0.5) in almost all urban agglomerations. Furthermore, NO2 presented a stronger association with PM2.5/PM10 variation than CO; and PM2.5 with NO2/SO2 variation than PM10. In summary, the economic structure, lockdown measures and meteorological conditions could explain the noteworthy variations in different urban agglomerations. These results would be in great help for improving air quality in the post-epidemic periods.
16. Insolubilization of Tramates versicolor laccase as cross-linked enzyme aggregates for the remediation of trace organic contaminants from municipal wastewater
Environmental Research, Volume 209, June 2022, 112882
The novelty of this study deals with the biocatalytic treatment of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) from municipal wastewater by insolubilized laccase. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was aggregated by three-phase partitioning technique followed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde to produce insolubilized laccase as cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs). The optimal conditions for CLEAs preparation include ammonium sulphate concentration of 83% (w/v), crude to t-butanol ratio of 1.00: 1.05 (v/v), pH 5.3, and glutaraldehyde concentration of 20 mM obtained via statistical design. The efficiency of insolubilization of the CLEAs laccase based on the kcat/km ratio was approximately 4.8-fold greater than that of free laccase. The developed CLEAs showed greater resistance to product inhibition mediated by ABTS than the free enzyme and exhibited excellent catalytic activity even after the tenth successive cycle. Further, free laccase and the synthesized CLEAs laccase were utilized to treat five analgesics, two NSAIDS, three antibiotics, two antilipemics, and three pesticides in the municipal wastewater. Under the batch process with operating conditions of pH 7.0 and 20 °C, 1000 U/L of CLEAs, laccase removed 11 TrOCs in the range of about 20–99%. However, the inactivated CLEAs only adsorbed 2–25% of TrOCs. It was observed that acetaminophen, mefenamic acid, trimethoprim, and metolachlor depicted almost complete removal with CLEAs laccase. The performance of CLEAs laccase in a perfusion basket reactor was tested for the removal of TrOCs from municipal wastewater.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Mobile monitoring of VOCs and source identification using two direct-inlet MSs in a large fine and petroleum chemical industrial park
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 823, 1 June 2022, 153615
Mobile monitoring with direct-inlet MS (DI-MS), one of the most direct and effective ways to track emission sources, can effectively serve air quality management in chemical industrial parks (CIPs). Mobile monitoring using a high mass-resolution proton-transfer-of-flight MS (SPI-TOFMS) was conducted in a large fine and petroleum CIP in eastern China for three days. The high mixing ratios of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), aromatics, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), and nitrogenous VOCs (NVOCs) were found in the northeast, middle, north, and northeast of the fine chemical industrial zone (FCIZ), respectively. OVOCs were the most abundant VOC group in this area. Abnormal emissions of aromatics were universal throughout the CIP. We discovered 38 characteristic VOCs by the HMR-PTR-TOFMS, mainly including C6-C10 aromatics, C2-C6 carbonyls, C2-C3 organic acids, and some NVOCs. The time series and spatial distribution of the TVOCs obtained by the two DI-MSs are generally consistent. A comparison of the speciated VOCs at the TVOC peak points illustrates that the characteristic VOCs obtained by different instruments differed significantly: PTR-TOFMS showed an advantage in measuring aromatics and OVOCs; SPI-TOFMS showed an advantage in measuring aromatics and some Ahs; offline GC–MS showed an advantage in measuring AHs, aromatics, some OVOCs, and halohydrocarbons. Similarities were compared between five positive matrix factorization (PMF) model-based fingerprints of VOCs in a previous study and observed profiles of VOCs from mobile monitoring. The emission sources of the five fingerprints were identified and validated: two were widely distributed, one was a chemical reagent production factory, one was an acrylic fiber production plant, and one was a pesticide factory. This study demonstrated methods for analyzing mobile monitoring data, characterizing the VOCs in the fine and petroleum CIP, correlating the results of stationary observation and mobile monitoring, and integrating the source tracing system with DI-MSs.
2. Organic wastes bioremediation and its changing prospects
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 824, 10 June 2022, 153889
Increasing inappropriate anthropogenic activities and industrialization have resulted in severe environmental pollution worldwide. Their effective treatment is vital for general health concerns. Depending on the characteristics of pollutants, the severity of pollution may differ. For sustainable treatment of polluted environments, bioremediation is accepted as the most efficient, economical, and environmentally friendly method hence largely preferred. However, every bioremediation technique has its own unique advantages and limitations due to its defined applications criteria. In bioremediation, microorganisms play a decisive role in detoxification by degrading, mineralizing and accumulating various forms of harmful and biodegradable pollutants from the surroundings and transforming them into less lethal forms. Bioremediation is performed ex-situ or in-situ, based on location of polluted site as well as characteristics, type and strength of the pollutants. Furthermore, the most popular methodologies for bioremediation include bioaugmentation, biostimulation, bioattenuation among others which depend on the prevailing environmental factors into the microbial system. Implementing them appropriately and effectively under ex-situ or in-situ method is extremely important not only for obtaining efficient treatment but also for the best economic, environmental, and social impacts. Therefore, this review aims to analyze various bioremediation methods for organic pollutants remediation from soil/sediments and wastewater, their strength, limitation, and insights for the selection of appropriate bioremediation techniques based on nature, types, degree, and location of the pollution. The novelty aspect of the article is to give updates on several key supporting technologies which have recently emerged and exhibited great potential to enhance the present bioremediation efficiency such as nanobubble, engineered biochar, mixotrophic microalgae, nanotechnology etc. Moreover, amalgamation of these technologies with existing bioremediation facilities are significantly changing the scenario and scope of environmental remediation towards sustainable bioremediation.
3. Relationship between dioxins and steroid hormone in 6-year-olds: A follow-up study in an e-waste region of China
Chemosphere, Volume 296, June 2022, 134018
We conducted a follow-up observational study on the effects of dioxin exposure on the synthesis of steroid hormones in infants during the perinatal period. The participants included 42 pairs of mothers and infants that were previously studied in 2015. We analyzed four types of steroid hormones including progesterone, testosterone, androstenedione (A-dione), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the serum samples of 6-year-olds and the concentration of dioxins in breast milk. A multivariate linear regression was performed to associate steroid hormones (dependent variables) and dioxins with the body mass index (BMI), sex, age, and residence of participants (independent variables). The results were reported as β (standardized coefficient) and p-values. We found that dioxins have a significant negative correlation with DHEA and A-dione but no significant relationship with progesterone and testosterone. However, in previous studies, we found that testosterone and progesterone levels were significantly related to dioxins in 4-year-olds. We concluded that dioxins can affect the level of steroid hormones, but their effects fluctuate, and the harm caused by dioxins in children requires further long-term monitoring.
4. Limitations and future directions of application of the Fenton-like process in micropollutants degradation in water and wastewater treatment: A critical review
Chemosphere, Volume 296, June 2022, 134041
Growing water scarcity and pollution are the main challenges that scientists need to focus on currently. Fenton-like processes are promising for applications related to water and wastewater treatment. Although there have been reviews on the fundamentals and applications of Fenton oxidation, a review focusing on the limitations of Fenton oxidation and their possible solutions is still insufficient. This review summarises the features, advantages, and drawbacks of the classic Fenton process. A comprehensive literature survey was conducted to review studies conducted over the last few decades dealing with the application of Fenton processes to organic pollutant removal from water and wastewater. The present overview highlights the modifications of Fenton processes focusing on industrial applications in water and wastewater treatment, especially for micropollutant degradation. Additionally, this study reviews the possibilities and future directions of research on Fenton-like processes to enable the incorporation of Fenton-based methods into existing water and wastewater treatment technologies, including industrial wastewater. It also presents a novel technological solution and improvements to the Fenton-like process to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost.
5. Historical record of legacy and alternative halogenated flame retardants in dated sediment from a highly industrialized saltwater lake in Korea
Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134264
Legacy and alternative halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), and dechlorane plus (DP), were measured in dated sediments from a highly industrialized lake in Korea. All HFRs were detected in almost all of the sediment depth layers for more than 70 years, indicating a history of long-term contamination. Similar historical trends in PBDEs, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), and DP were observed in dated sediments, whereas decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), and 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-octabromo-1,3,3-trimethyl-1-phenylindane (OBIND) concentrations sharply increased since the 1990s. Moreover, the concentration ratios of DBDPE/BDE 209 increased from the early 1990s to the present. Our findings suggest that DBDPE and OBIND have been used as HFR alternatives. The historical record of the concentrations and profiles of legacy and alternative HFRs corresponded with industrial activities, consumption of FRs, and coastal development activities. Inventories of legacy and alternative HFRs were similar to those reported for highly industrialized regions around the globe.
6. Treatment of nitrate containing wastewater by adsorption process using polypyrrole-modified plastic-carbon: Characteristic and mechanism
Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134107
Polypyrrole-modified plastic-carbon (PET-PPy) composite was prepared by using high porosity plastic-carbon materials and a special doping mechanism of polypyrrole to remove nitrate from water to achieve waste recycling. As a result, PET-PPy-500 showed remarkable nitrate adsorption in both acidic and alkaline wastewater. The pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models were fit for the nitrate adsorption by PET-PPy-500, and the maximum adsorption capacity predicted by the Langmuir model was 10.04 mg NO3–N/g (45.18 mg NO3−/g) at 30 °C. The ion exchange and electrostatic attraction were the main mechanisms of removing NO3− by PET-PPy-500, which was demonstrated by the interface characterization and theoretical calculation. The doped ions (Cl−) and/or other anions produced by charge transfer interaction were the main exchange ions in the process of NO3− adsorption. The main binding sites in the electrostatic adsorption process were nitrogen-containing functional groups, which can be confirmed by the results of XPS and density functional theory (DFT). Furthermore, DFT results also showed that the adsorption of nitrate by PET-PPy was a spontaneous exothermic process, and the adsorption energy at the nitrogen site was the lowest. The findings of this study provide a feasible strategy for the advanced treatment of nitrate containing wastewater.
7. Biochar-based composites for remediation of polluted wastewater and soil environments: Challenges and prospects
Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134163
Pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, pesticides, and dyes are the main environmental contaminants that have serious effects on both land and aquatic lives and necessitate the development of effective methods to mitigate these issues. Although some conventional methods are in use to tackle soil contamination, but biochar and biochar-based composites represent a reliable and sustainable means to deal with a spectrum of toxic organic and inorganic pollutants from contaminated environments. The capacity of biochars and derived constructs to remediate inorganic dyes, pesticides, insecticides, heavy metals, and pharmaceuticals from environmental matrices is attributed to their extensive surface area, surface functional groups, pore size distribution, and high sorption capability of these pollutants in water and soil environments. Application conditions, biochar feedstock, pyrolysis conditions and precursor materials are the factors that influence the capacity and functionality of biochar to adsorb pollutants from wastewater and soil. These factors, when improved, can benefit biochar in agrochemical and heavy metal remediation from various environments. However, the processes involved in biochar production and their influence in enhancing pollutant sequestration remain unclear. Therefore, this paper throws light on the current strategies, operational conditions, and sequestration performance of biochar and biochar-based composites for agrochemical and heavy metal in soil and water environments. The main challenges associated with biochar preparation and exploitation, toxicity evaluation, research directions and future prospects for biochar in environmental remediation are also outlined.
8. One-pot synthesis of bismuth yttrium tungstate nanosheet decorated 3D-BiOBr nanoflower heterostructure with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity
Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 133993
A visible light driven BiOBr/BixY1-xWO6 nanocomposite photocatalyst of various compositions are prepared by the addition of different amounts of KBr (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mmol) in BixY1-xWO6 by a one-pot hydrothermal method. Furthermore, the photocatalytic properties of the as-prepared materials are analyzed by the decomposition of methylene blue under visible light illumination. In particular, the BiOBr/BixY1-xWO6 nanocomposite prepared by taking 1.5 mmol of KBr present a superior photocatalytic ability (78.3%) with the rate constant value 0.016 min−1, a low bandgap (Eg = 2.51 eV) as well as photoluminescence emission intensity than other photocatalysts prepared in this study. The radical scavenging studies revealed that radical dotOH and h+ performed an imperative role in the decomposition of methylene blue. Furthermore, the optimized photocatalyst is stable even after four cycles, which exposes the excellent photostability and reusability properties of the photocatalyst. In addition, a plausible mechanism of decomposition of methylene blue under visible light irradiation is also proposed.
9. Study on the treatment of tempering lubricant wastewater in steel industry by anaerobic/aerobic process
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 355, 25 June 2022, 131754
Tempering lubricant wastewater (TLW) is alkaline oily wastewater produced in the cold rolling process of steel, which has multiple contaminants in high concentration including complex organic components, oil, and surfactants. And the ratio of BOD/COD was only around 0.1. This study evaluated the performance of the combined anaerobic/aerobic (A/O) batch reactors for treating real TLW under different organic load rates (OLRs). The results of 140 days monitoring indicated that A/O process was effective to TLW treatment, the removal efficiencies of TOC and total nitrogen (TN) reached 86.2% and 81.5% when OLR was 5 g-COD/L/d. It was also found that OLR had much effect on the microorganism’s distribution in the anaerobic reactor. The abundance of Firmicutes increasing at higher OLR (over 5 g-COD/L/d) caused volatile fatty acids accumulation during anaerobic treatment and then inhibited TLW degradation, especially for TOC removal. Based on the sludge characters and microbial community analyses, aerobic granule sludge formed in aerobic reactor contributed to TN removal by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. Functional genes were also detected through real-time quantitative PCR analysis.
10. The comparative life-cycle environmental effects of chemical feedstock change driven by energy system transition: A case study from China’s ethylene glycol industry
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 355, 25 June 2022, 131764
A vital avenue through which replacing coal with shale gas in the energy system reshapes the feedstock of China’s chemical manufacturing and related environmental burdens. Here, we use ethylene glycol production as an example to evaluate the environmental loads from four typical production routes—naphtha to ethylene glycol (OEG), ethane to ethylene glycol (EEG), coal-based methanol to ethylene glycol (MEG), and coal-based syngas to ethylene glycol (CEG)—by life-cycle assessment method based on global nine midpoint impacts and China’s localized energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER) index. The result shows that replacing the traditional coal-fed MEG and CEG capacity with ethane-fed EEG capacity reduces most environmental stresses but increases ODP and POFP burdens by 87% and 21%, respectively. Furthermore, the scenario analysis shows that feedstock change and production growth referring to the 2018 baseline increase the environmental burdens of China’s ethylene glycol industry by 20–170% by 2025. This study updates the environmental-burden picture of ethylene glycol production under the dual contexts of the energy system and chemical feedstock transitions to achieve sustainable development for policymakers.
11. Measurement and analysis of ecological pressure due to industrial development in the Yangtze River economic belt from 2010 to 2018
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 353, 15 June 2022, 131614
The main aim of the study is to measure the ecological pressure due to industrial development in the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB), which accounts for half of China’s industrial output. In contrast to previous empirical studies, we test the ecological pressure on the YREB due to industrial development by using a more comprehensive environmental quality model named the ecological footprint. Meanwhile, a panel regression model is further established to search the influencing factors relating to the YREB’s industrial ecological footprint. Although the YERB still faces the tremendous ecological pressure brought by industrial development, the conditions of ecological environment deterioration and resource depletion have been improved. The ecological footprint of industrial added value in various provinces and cities has generally shown a downward trend, and the ecological benefits of industrial development are continuously improving. The improvement of the ecological benefits of industrial development in the YREB now mainly depends on environmental regulation. To achieve the unity of economic benefits and ecological benefits, the government should design related policies, as discussed in the conclusion.
12. Comprehensive evaluation of environmental and economic benefits of industrial symbiosis in industrial parks
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 354, 20 June 2022, 131635
The benefit evaluation of industrial symbiosis in industrial parks plays an important part in park management. This study aims to propose a comprehensive assessment method for industrial symbiosis benefits by combining resource productivity and considering the impact of emissions in emergy analysis. Besides, classify industrial symbiosis according to the exchange of materials, water, and energy to conduct an in-depth analysis of diverse symbiosis. The case study of an eco-industrial park in China shows that industrial symbiosis has a positive effect in many aspects, including increasing the productivity of direct input materials, water, and energy by 0.33, 36.50, and 0.38 times respectively, reducing the emission impact by 30.91%, saving economic investment equal to 30.18% of gross domestic product, reducing the environmental load rate by 23.88% and increasing the sustainable development index by 32.74%. Suggestions on building a symbiosis network are put forward by comparing the contributions of symbiosis types. This study provides park managers with a symbiosis classification and a benefit evaluation tool to build symbiosis networks and make policies for sustainable industrial development.
13. An assessment of China’s industrial emission characteristics using satellite observations of XCO2, SO2, and NO2
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Available online 20 June 2022, 101486
An effective assessment of industrial emission characteristics is necessary to formulate appropriate emission reduction measures. However, regular and complete emission reports are not always available. Therefore, this study aims to use satellite observations of atmospheric pollutants to evaluate the intensity, efficiency, industrial composition, and energy composition of industrial carbon emissions. Taking China as the study area, first, the XCO2 enhancement (△XCO2) and co-located SO2 and NO2 corresponding to the industrial land area were extracted based on the satellite data of OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2) and Aura OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument). Then, the relationship between atmospheric pollutant composition and industrial emission characteristics in different regions is analyzed. Finally, an estimation model based on atmospheric pollution characteristics is constructed, and the characteristics of China’s industrial emissions in 2015 are evaluated. Results show that evaluating the specific emission characteristics is possible by using the comprehensive satellite observations of atmospheric pollutants, and the estimation results are in good agreement with the sectoral emission inventory. High NO2 and high emission intensity are mainly distributed in eastern China, while high SO2 and low emission efficiency are mainly distributed in the north. Furthermore, △XCO2 and NO2 are positively correlated with emission intensity and the proportion of emissions from the machinery industry, SO2 is negatively correlated with the proportion of chemical industry emissions, and SO2/NO2 is negatively correlated with emission efficiency and the proportion of light industry emissions. Results of the study show that the comprehensive satellite observation characteristics of atmospheric pollutants can be a reliable reference in evaluating industrial emission characteristics.
14. Industrial agglomeration and industrial SO2 emissions in China’s 285 cities: Evidence from multiple agglomeration types
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 353, 15 June 2022, 131675
The environmental externalities of industrial agglomeration have generated intense debate, yet few studies have considered their effects and inner influence mechanism based on varied agglomeration types. This study distinguished between industrial density and proximity (spatially) and industrial specialization and diversity, as well as related variety and unrelated variety (organizationally). Using the panel data from China’s 285 cities from 2003 to 2013, we examined the different effects of multiple agglomeration types of industrial agglomeration on industrial SO2 emissions, and their inner influence mechanism from two aspects of industrial structure and technological progress. First, we found that various agglomeration types have different environmental externalities and that industrial density and proximity both have significant reduction effects on SO2 emissions; diversity and related variety effectively reduce SO2 discharges, but specialization and unrelated variety are linked to increased emissions. Second, technological progress and industrial structure are the critical channels of industrial agglomeration affecting pollution emissions while technological progress plays a greater role in the reducing emission effect of industrial agglomeration. Our findings reveal the importance of different agglomeration types and technological progress between industrial agglomeration and pollution emission.
15. Energy digital twin technology for industrial energy management: Classification, challenges and future
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 161, June 2022, 112407
Digitalisation of the process and energy industries through energy digital twin technology promises step-improvements in energy management and optimisation, better servicing and maintenance, energy-efficient design and evolution of existing sites, and integration with locally and regionally generated renewable energy. This systematic and critical review aims to accelerate the understanding, classification, and application of energy digital twin technology. It adds to the literature by developing an original multi-dimensional digital twin classification framework, summarising the applications of energy digital twins throughout a site’s lifecycle, and constructing a proposal of how to apply the technology to industrial sites and local areas to enable a reduction in carbon and other environmental footprints. The review concludes by identifying key challenges that face uptake of energy digital twins and a framework to apply the energy digital twins.
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