Trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 21-2023 với những nội dung chính như sau:
Về quản lý môi trường
– Kỷ niệm 50 năm công nghệ tạo hạt vi sinh: Từ quản lý nước thải thông thường đến thu hồi sản phẩm sinh học.
– Sự khác biệt giữa đóng góp vận chuyển VOC và NOx, tác động của chúng đối với O3 và ý nghĩa đối với việc giảm thiểu ô nhiễm O3 dựa trên mô phỏng CMAQ ở Đồng bằng sông Dương Tử, Trung Quốc.
– Làm thế nào để mô phỏng các kịch bản quản lý nước mưa đô thị trong tương lai? Một khuôn khổ mới kết hợp biến đổi khí hậu, đô thị hóa và phát triển cơ sở hạ tầng nước mưa xanh.
– Ô nhiễm đất và nước ngầm do LNAPL: Hiện đại và những thách thức trong tương lai.
– Ô nhiễm hạt vi nhựa ở Himalaya: Sự xuất hiện, phân bố, tích tụ và tác động môi trường.
– Đặc tính của vi sợi có nguồn gốc từ ngành công nghiệp in lụa.
– Xu hướng sơ bộ trong hơn 10 năm của các chất ô nhiễm hữu cơ khó phân hủy trong không khí – So sánh hai bộ dữ liệu ở cùng một quốc gia.
– Sự chênh lệch về khả năng tiếp cận không gian xanh trong thời gian hạn chế di chuyển do COVID-19.
Về môi trường đô thị
– Đánh giá vòng đời của các lựa chọn cuối vòng đời đối với nhựa sinh học dựa trên cellulose khi được đưa vào hệ thống quản lý chất thải rắn đô thị.
– Đô thị hóa không gây nguy hiểm cho an ninh lương thực: Bằng chứng từ cao nguyên hoàng thổ của Trung Quốc.
– Giám sát SARS-CoV-2 trong nước thải từ các tòa nhà có cư dân sinh sống với các mức độ dễ bị tổn thương khác nhau Khoa học về.
– Đánh giá vi hạt nhựa trong môi trường trong nhà: Phân phối, phơi nhiễm của con người và các tác động sức khỏe tiềm ẩn.
– Tác động ngắn hạn của tiếng ồn, các chất gây ô nhiễm không khí khác và các yếu tố khí tượng đối với việc nhập viện cấp cứu về sức khỏe tâm thần ở khu vực Madrid.
– Mối quan hệ của việc tiếp xúc với ô nhiễm không khí trong thời gian dài với bệnh hen suyễn và viêm mũi ở Ý: một cách tiếp cận đa chất sáng tạo.
– Giới thiệu lại một bộ xử lý sinh học keystone có thể tạo điều kiện thuận lợi cho quá trình xử lý sinh học bằng vi sinh vật trong các trầm tích bị ô nhiễm ở đô thị.
– Quản lý môi trường nước tù đọng trong mạng lưới sông đô thị: Phân tích rủi ro tổng hợp liên quan đến tiêu tán tiềm năng thủy lực.
– Về sức khỏe môi trường của trẻ em và khả năng tiếp cận thiên nhiên của chúng ở các đảo nhiệt đô thị: Phân tích vi khí hậu siêu địa phương thông qua khảo sát, lập mô hình và cảm biến có thể đeo được ở các sân chơi đô thị.
– Các yếu tố khí hậu và phù du thúc đẩy sự đa dạng của tuyến trùng đất và thành phần cộng đồng trong hệ sinh thái đô thị.
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
– Lò phản ứng sinh học màng sống để xử lý nước thải dệt nhuộm hiệu quả cao và thân thiện với môi trường.
– Hướng tới nền kinh tế tuần hoàn trong sản xuất dầu ô liu nguyên chất: Định giá chất thải của nhà máy ô liu (OMW) “alpeorujo” thông qua thu hồi polyphenol bằng dung môi eutectic sâu tự nhiên (NADES) và ủ phân trùn quế.
– Đặc điểm ô nhiễm của các hợp chất thơm đa vòng từ nguồn than tại các khu vực khai thác than điển hình ở khu vực Hoài Bắc, Trung Quốc.
– Phần kim loại nặng, ô nhiễm và đánh giá rủi ro theo hướng nguồn trong màng sinh học trên hệ thống sông bị ô nhiễm bởi các hoạt động khai thác mỏ.
– Chuẩn bị và mô tả đặc tính của một spinel cadmium aluminat thay thế coban mới để phân hủy quang các chất ô nhiễm thuốc nhuộm azo.
– Xử lý đất bị ô nhiễm ete diphenyl polybrom hóa tại khu xử lý chất thải điện tử bằng cách nghiền bi sắt hóa trị 0 biến tính persulfate hoạt hóa.
– Khám phá vai trò của sự đồng kết tụ của các dịch vụ sản xuất và sản xuất đối với năng suất carbon: Một nghiên cứu thực nghiệm về 282 thành phố ở Trung Quốc.
– Khám phá tình trạng thất thoát lương thực trong ngành công nghiệp thực phẩm: Phương pháp tiếp cận dựa trên khảo sát cho Litva.
– Cơ chế xử lý ô nhiễm Asen và bước đầu ứng dụng vi khuẩn oxi hóa Asen phân lập từ nước thải công nghiệp.
– Ảnh hưởng của thu nhập, cơ cấu ngành và quy định môi trường đối với các tác động sinh thái của khai thác mỏ: Một phân tích cho tỉnh Quảng Tây, Trung Quốc.
– Ai sẽ trả tiền cho các mô-đun quang điện ngừng hoạt động? Bằng chứng từ phân tích trò chơi tiến hóa của ngành công nghiệp quang điện của Trung Quốc dưới sự khuyến khích năng động.
– Đo lường chỉ số phát triển xanh và sự phối hợp liên kết của ngành khai thác mỏ: Một phân tích thực nghiệm dựa trên dữ liệu bảng ở Trung Quốc.
– Đánh giá tác động môi trường và tiềm năng hiệu quả vật liệu sử dụng phụ phẩm, phế liệu.
– Động lực thúc đẩy ngành tái chế pin lithium-ion hướng tới nền kinh tế tuần hoàn trong thời đại công nghiệp 4.0.
– Nghiên cứu đánh giá và thực nghiệm xây dựng mỏ xanh ngành than theo mô hình AHP-SPA.
Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. Neodymium isotopes in peat reveal past local environmental disturbances
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 871, 1 May 2023, 161859
Over the past decade, the neodymium (Nd) isotope composition of mineral matter from peat cores has seen increasingly common use as a tracer of dust influx associated with major changes in the Holocene atmospheric circulation. However, the incomplete understanding of the local controls on the sources of the sediment supplied to peatlands remains a key difficulty in the interpretation of the archived Nd isotope signals. Here, we used neodymium isotopes to reconstruct environmental disturbances in peatlands. We performed a multi-proxy study of two peatlands that experienced peatland burning and validated the recorded peat Nd signatures using reference surface sampling. Our data show a link between the Nd isotope signals and local environmental disturbances: peat burning, local fire activity and pollution fluxes. Our study illustrates the crucial role of identifying local events that influence the supply of mineral material to peatlands. Insufficient recognition of such local controls may either obscure the large-scale variations in the atmospheric circulation patterns, or introduce artefacts to the Holocene climate record. We also provide recommendations for the use of Nd isotopes in palaeoecological studies of peatlands.
2. Investigating the vertical and spatial extent of radon-based classification of the atmospheric mixing state and impacts on seasonal urban air quality
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 872, 10 May 2023, 162126
A recently-developed radon-based method for combined classification of both diurnal and synoptic timescale changes in the atmospheric mixing state is applied to 1-year of observations in Ljubljana (capital of Slovenia). Five diurnal-timescale mixing classes (#1 to #5) were defined for each season along with an additional mixing class (#6) in non-summer months, representative of synoptic-timescale changes of the atmospheric mixing state associated with “persistent temperature inversion” (PTI) events. Seasonal composite radiosonde profiles and mean sea level pressure charts within each mixing class are used to demonstrate the link between prevailing synoptic conditions and the local mixing state, which drives changes in urban air quality. Diurnal cycles of selected pollutants (BC, NO2, CO, PM10, SO2 and O3) exhibited substantial seasonality as a result of changing mixing conditions, source types and strengths. For the more well-mixed conditions (classes #2 to #3), surface wind speeds were 3 times higher than during class #6 (PTI) conditions, resulting in a 3-fold reduction of primary pollutant accumulation. Daily-mean PM10 concentrations only exceeded EU and WHO guideline values in winter and autumn for two of the radon-defined mixing classes: (i) class #5 (strongly stable near-surface conditions associated with passing synoptic anti-cyclone systems), and (ii) class #6 (PTI conditions driven by regional subsidence in the presence of the “Siberian High”). Both mixing states were associated with low mean wind speeds (∼0–0.7 m s−1) and strong thermal stratification, as indicated both by pseudo-vertical temperature gradients (∆T/∆z) and radiosonde profiles. Diurnal ∆T/∆z values indicated limited opportunity for convective mixing of pollutants from the basin atmosphere under these conditions. The demonstrated consistency in atmospheric mixing conditions (vertically and spatially) across the diurnal cycle within each of the defined mixing classes suggests the radon-based classification scheme used in conjunction with 3-D urban sensor networks could be well suited to evaluate mitigation schemes for urban pollution and urban climate.
3. Celebrating 50 years of microbial granulation technologies: From canonical wastewater management to bio-product recovery
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 872, 10 May 2023, 162213
Microbial granulation technologies (MGT) in wastewater management are widely practised for more than fifty years. MGT can be considered a fine example of human innovativeness-driven nature wherein the manmade forces applied during operational controls in the biological process of wastewater treatment drive the microbial communities to modify their biofilms into granules. Mankind, over the past half a century, has been refining the knowledge of triggering biofilm into granules with some definite success. This review captures the journey of MGT from inception to maturation providing meaningful insights into the process development of MGT-based wastewater management. The full-scale application of MGT-based wastewater management is discussed with an understanding of functional microbial interactions within the granule. The molecular mechanism of granulation through the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and signal molecules is also highlighted in detail. The recent research interest in the recovery of useful bioproducts from the granular EPS is also emphasized.
4. Differences between VOCs and NOx transport contributions, their impacts on O3, and implications for O3 pollution mitigation based on CMAQ simulation over the Yangtze River Delta, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 872, 10 May 2023, 162118
The relationship between O3 and its precursors during urban polluted episodes remains unclear. In this study, the simultaneous source apportionment of VOCs, NOx, and O3 over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region during the O3 polluted episode on July 24–30, 2018, was performed based on the Integrated Source Apportionment Method (ISAM) embedded in the Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ). The results of the ISAM were compared with those of the Brute Force Method (BFM) and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Furthermore, the differences between the transport contributions of VOCs and NOx, and their impacts on O3 were analyzed. The results indicate that observations of VOCs species can be well captured by simulated VOCs, and the ISAM has a significant advantage in the source apportionment of VOCs, especially for sources emitting highly reactive species. In the clean and polluted periods, the local contribution percentages of VOCs in urban sites ranged from 60 % to 77 %, much higher than those of NOx (31 %–43 %) and O3 (16 %–33 %). NOx and O3 have strong transport abilities with high and close contribution percentages, which are highly correlated, mainly because oxygen atoms produced by the photolysis of NO2 in the aged air mass combined rapidly with O2 to form O3 during transport. The VOCs chemical loss caused by the oxidation of OH radicals during transport makes the ability of VOCs for long-distance transport much weaker than that of NOx. Furthermore, owing to the sufficient aging of VOCs, those contributed by long-distance transport have little effect on O3. To a certain extent, controlling one’s NOx emissions can help other cities more, while controlling one’s VOCs emissions can help itself more. Therefore, it is recommended to attach enough importance to joint prevention and control of NOx among cities and even long-distance areas to alleviate regional O3 pollution.
5. How to simulate future scenarios of urban stormwater management? A novel framework coupling climate change, urbanization, and green stormwater infrastructure development
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 874, 20 May 2023, 162399
Climate change, urbanization, and green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) planning policies lead to uncertainties in future urban sustainability. Coupling multiple influencing factors such as climate change, urbanization, and GSI development, this study proposes a novel framework for simulating future scenarios of urban stormwater. Subsequently, the changes in annual surface runoff and runoff pollutants in Shanghai’s new and old urban areas were compared and analyzed based on 35 typical future and seven baseline scenarios. The following results were obtained: 1) The runoff control rate of the new urban area was significantly higher than that of the old urban area before GSI construction. After GSI construction, both areas could control stormwater runoff and pollutants, while the decline in efficiency in GSI facilities enormously impacted the old area. 2) Surface runoff in the new urban area was mainly affected by urbanization, while climate change was a major factor in the old urban area; runoff pollutants in new and old urban areas were mainly affected by urbanization, and the change in pollutants in new areas was more pronounced. 3) GSI facilities were unlikely to guarantee the quantity and quality of water resources, especially in scenarios where the efficiency of GSI facilities decreases. In old urban areas, the more extreme climate change and urbanization were, the more significant the effect of improving stormwater management facilities. Our findings showed that future studies on stormwater management should specifically consider the different characteristics of new and old urban regions, pay attention to the maintenance and management of GSI facilities, and build adaptive strategies to cope with climate change, urbanization, and GSI facility destruction.
6. Groundwater and soil contamination by LNAPL: State of the art and future challenges
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 874, 20 May 2023, 162394
Contamination by Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPL) represents a challenge due to the difficulties encountered in its underground assessment and recovery. The major risks arising from subsoil LNAPL accumulation face human health and environment, gaining a social relevance also in the frame of a continuously changing climate. This paper reports on a literature review about the underground contamination by LNAPL, with the aims of providing a categorization of the aspects involved in this topic, analyzing the current state of the art, underlying potential lacks and future perspectives. The review was focused on papers published in the 2012–2022 time-interval, in journals indexed in Scopus and WoS databases, by querying “LNAPL” within article title, Abstractand/or key words. 245 papers were collected and classified according to three “key approaches” -namely laboratory activity, field based-data studies and mathematical simulations- and subordinate “key themes”, so to allow summarizing and commenting the main aspects based on the application setting, content and scope. Results show that there is a wide experience on plume dynamics and evolution, detection and monitoring through direct and indirect surveys, oil recovery and natural attenuation processes. Few cues of innovations were found regarding both the use of new materials and/or specific field configuration for remediation, and the application of new techniques for plume detection. Some limitations were found in the common oversimplification of the polluted media in laboratory or mathematical models, where the contamination is set within homogeneous porous environments, and in the low number of studies focused on rock masses, where the discontinuous hydraulic behavior complicates the address and modeling of the issue. This paper represents a reference for a quick update on the addressed topic, along with a starting point to develop new ideas and cues for the advance in one of the greatest environmental banes of the current century.
7. Microplastic pollution in the Himalayas: Occurrence, distribution, accumulation and environmental impacts
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 874, 20 May 2023, 162495
Microplastics have been reported from various ecosystems including lakes, ponds, wetlands, mountains, and forests globally. Recent research works showed microplastic deposition and accumulation in the Himalayan mountains and adjoining ecosystems, rivers and streams. Fine particles of microplastic originating from different anthropogenic sources can travel long distances, even upwards (altitudinally) through atmospheric transport and can pollute remote and pristine locations situated in the Himalayas. Precipitation also plays a vital role in influencing deposition and fallout of microplastics in the Himalayas. Microplastics can be trapped in the snow in glaciers for a long time and can be released into freshwater rivers by snow melting. Microplastic pollution in Himalayan rivers such as the Ganga, Indus, Brahmaputra, Alaknanda, and Kosi has been researched on both the upper and lower catchments. Additionally, Himalayan region draws many domestic and international tourists throughout the year, resulting in generation of massive and unmanageable volume of plastics wastes and finally ending up in the open landscapes covering forests, river streams and valley. Fragmentation of these plastic wastes can lead to microplastic formation and accumulation in the Himalayas. This paper discusses and explains occurrence and distribution of microplastics in the Himalayan landscapes, possible adverse effects of microplastic on local ecosystems and human population and policy intervention needed to mitigate microplastic pollution in the Himalayas. A knowledge gap was noticed regarding the fate of microplastics in the freshwater ecosystems and their control mechanisms in the Indian Himalayas. Regulatory approaches for microplastics management in the Himalayas sit within the broader plastics/solid waste management and can be implemented effectively by following integrated approaches.
8. Characterization of microfibers originated from the textile screen printing industry
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 874, 20 May 2023, 162550
Textile industries are known for their higher levels of environmental impact due to their nature of processes. However, the impact of the textile manufacturing process on emerging microfiber pollution is less explored. This research focuses on analyzing the microfiber release behavior of textile fabrics during the screen printing process. The effluent released in the screen printing process was carefully collected at the point of origin and characterized for microfiber count and length. The analysis revealed a higher amount of microfiber release of 1,394,205.22 ± 426,262.50 microfibers/L of printing effluent. This result was 25 times higher than previous research that analyzed the influent of textile wastewater treatment plants. The lower water usage throughout the cleaning process was noted as the main reason for the higher concentration. Based on the total amount of textile (fabrics) processed, it was noted that the print process releases 23.10 ± 7.06 microfibers/sq.cm of fabric. The majority of identified microfibers were in the length range of 100–500 μm (61.25 %), with an average length of 519.1 μm. The use of adhesives and raw cut edges of the fabric panels were noted as the primary reason for microfiber emission, even in the absence of water. Significantly a higher amount of microfiber release was noted with the lab-scale simulation of the adhesive process. A comparative analysis of microfiber quantity with industry effluent, lab-scale simulation, and household laundry of the same fabric showed that, out of all phases, the lab-scale simulation caused higher fiber release (1156.63 ± 21.74 microfibers per sq.cm of fabric). This shows that the adhesive process during the printing process was the key reason for higher microfiber emissions. When domestic laundry and the adhesive process were compared, domestic laundry showed significantly lesser release (320.31 ± 49 microfibers/sq.cm of fabric). Though various studies have explored the impact of microfiber released from domestic laundry, the results of the current study alarm that the textile printing process is an underestimated source of microfiber release into the environment, which requires greater attention.
9. Preliminary trends over ten years of persistent organic pollutants in air – Comparison of two sets of data in the same countries
Chemosphere, Volume 324, May 2023, 138299
In two series of ambient air measurement campaigns to support the implementation of the global monitoring plan (GMP) component of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), passive air samplers (PAS) using polyurethane foams were implemented by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). With the same laboratories responsible for the chemical analyses of the different groups of POPs, a total of 423 PUFs were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB); 242 for dioxin-like POPs. For trend analysis, to compare amounts of POPs in the PUFs during the first phase in 2010/2011 and the second phase from 2017 to 2019, only results were assessed that were generated in the same country and for the same POP in both campaigns. Finally, there were 194 PUFs available for OCPs (GMP1 = 67 and GMP2 = 127), 297 for PCB (GMP1 = 103, GMP2 = 194), 158 for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD, PCDF) (GMP1 = 39, GMP2 = 119), and 153 for dl-PCB (GMP1 = 34, GMP2 = 119). Indicator PCB and dioxin-like POPs were quantified in all countries at all times; decreases of about 30% based on median values were determined. A 50% increase was found for HCB. By scale, DDT remained with the highest values, although more than 60% decrease was found; mainly due to smaller values in the Pacific Islands region. Our assessment showed that on relative scale – per PUF – trend analysis was achieved and that such approach should be undertaken at regular intervals, not necessarily on an annual basis.
10. Disparities in greenspace access during COVID-19 mobility restrictions
Environmental Research, Volume 225, 15 May 2023, 115551
More than half of the human population lives in cities and therefore predominantly experience nature in urban greenspace, an important contributor to wellbeing. As the world faces a pandemic which threatens the physical and mental health of billions of people, it is crucial to understand that all have the possibility to access nature exposure to alleviate some of these challenges. Here, for the first time, we integrate data from Facebook, Twitter, and Google Search users to show that people looked for greenspace during COVID-19 mobility restrictions but may not have always managed to reach it. We used a longitudinal approach, replicated in three European cities, to assess whether people spent more time in locations with more greenspace, and whether this change in urban density remained for the whole pandemic, pre-vaccine, period. We coupled this human density study with a longitudinal study of web search patterns for Parks and online discussion about urban greenspace. People searched for Parks near them more during the pandemic, particularly when they were allowed to visit them. They discussed in positive terms greenspace particularly more at the start of the pandemic. People spent more time in areas with greenspace when they could and that depended on the level of multiple deprivation of their neighbourhood. Importantly, while people sought greenspace throughout the first 20 months of the pandemic, this preference intensified through the waves of lockdown. Living in an affluent area conferred a greenspace advantage in London and Paris but we find that in Berlin greenspace in more deprived neighbourhoods were used more. Overall, urban greenspace occupied a greater place in people’s lives during the pandemic. Whether people could realise greenspace access depended on the deprivation level of the neighbourhood. Public greenspace access should be integrated in national indices of deprivation given its importance for wellbeing.
11. A multi-scenario BP-neural-network ecologically-extended input-output model for synergetic management of water-electricity nexus system – A case study of Fujian province
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 399, 1 May 2023, 136581
Water and electricity are interdependent and restricted (forming water-electricity nexus), which hinder the socioeconomic sustainable development associated with resources pressures. In this study, a multi-scenario BP-neural-network ecologically-extended input-output model (named as MBP-EIO) is developed for supporting water-electricity nexus (WEN) system sustainable management. MBP-EIO can not only identify key consumption sectors and system characteristics of WEN, but also predict water and electricity consumptions to support regional sustainable development. MBP-EIO is then applied to analyzing WEN system of Fujian province (China), where multiple scenarios under different economic development speeds and industrial structures are designed for determining the optimal management strategies. Our major findings are: (i) hybrid electricity (occupying 69.7%) is the main factor of the total electricity, and direct water (occupying 32.8%) is the largest factor of the total water; (ii) the economic sectors that consume the most hybrid water and hybrid electricity are agriculture, manufacturing and construction; (iii) by 2025, water and electricity consumptions would increase to 198.8 × 109 m³ and 328.1 × 109 kWh to facilitate the economic development and secondary industry transformation; (iv) when Fujian’s economic development is at a mid-speed (about 6.3%) and its tertiary industry is improved to 30%, the WEN system can reach the optimum. The findings are valuable for coordinately managing water and electricity as well as effectively supporting the provincial socioeconomic sustainable development.
12. The techno-economic-environmental analysis of a pilot-scale positive pressure biomass gasification coupled with coal-fired power generation system
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 402, 20 May 2023, 136793
Biomass gasification coupled with coal-fired power generation (BGCPG) is of great significance for alleviating energy shortages and environmental pollution. Here we propose, analyze and validate a BGCPG system under positive pressure for cleaner applications based on a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasification plant and discussed the possibility of higher economic output and operating stability with reduced pollution emissions. Then the effects of temperature, air equivalence ratio and operating pressure were experimentally investigated for parameter optimization. The processes under positive and negative pressure were simulated and compared based on the pilot-scale experimental data, and the effects of the mixing ratio and operating pressure were investigated. Furthermore, the economic and sensitivity analyses were conducted for both a traditional coal-fired power plant and simulated BGCPG systems. The results demonstrated that the gas calorific value, gas yield, and gasification efficiency increased with the gasification temperature increasing, whereas the opposite trend was observed for the gas calorific value with the air equivalence ratio increasing. The positive pressure operation had little influence on the gasification process. The flue gas flow rate increased, and the furnace temperature decreased with an increase in the mixing ratio of biomass and coal. The reduction in fuel NOx and SOx was caused by the decreasing coal content, whereas the decrease in thermal NOx and boiler thermal efficiency was due to the increasing exhaust temperature. Compared with functioning under negative pressure, operation under positive pressure at a 20% mixing ratio could effectively reduce the pollutant emissions of SOx, NOx and dust by 5.64%, 8.8% and 20%, respectively. The generation costs of the BGCPG system under negative and positive pressure conditions were 0.05593 $/kW·h and 0.05582 $/kW·h respectively, indicating that a positive operating pressure would increase the economic benefit of a 660 MW generator by 5.808 × 105 $/year. These findings suggest the effectiveness of clean power generation with a higher economy and lower pollution emissions.
13. Modeling product carbon footprint for manufacturing process
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 402, 20 May 2023, 136805
To reduce carbon intensity and improve energy efficiency in product manufacturing, a comprehensive carbon emission model is essential. Most of the existing researches focus on specific aspects of part machining and lack a quantitative model of the product manufacturing process. Therefore, this paper decomposes and evolves the carbon footprint of product manufacturing from the workshop layer, forming a systematic carbon emission quantitative model. The product manufacturing process is divided into manufacturing equipment layer, part layer, product layer and workshop layer. The sources of carbon emissions in each layer are analyzed and modeled. Finally, take a certain type of wind turbine gearbox as an example. The carbon emissions model for manufacturing process of wind turbine gearbox is established, which provides directions for carbon emission reduction of related manufacturing enterprises. The results show that the rear housing, front housing, and 1st plant carrier are the main carbon emission parts of wind turbine gearbox.
14. Do the ecosystems of Gansu Province in Western China’s crucial ecological security barrier remain vulnerable? Evidence from remote sensing based on geospatial analysis
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 402, 20 May 2023, 136740
Under the dual stress of climate change and human activities, ecological problems such as vegetation degradation, soil erosion, and desertification have disturbed the balance of the human-land relationship, damaged the ecosystem integrity, and seriously affected the sustainable development of human societies and ecological environments. Scientifically assessing the stability or vulnerability of an ecosystem is a key prerequisite for measuring its degree of sustainability. Ecological vulnerability (EV) provides a reasonable quantitative pathway as the comprehensive result of ecosystem change. However, to meet the challenges of variable external interference, the capabilities of existing assessment frameworks require further improvement. This study constructed a novel comprehensive remote sensing index directly based on land surface characteristics—regional ecological vulnerability index (REVI) and assessed the spatio-temporal characteristics and driving mechanism of EV in Gansu Province during 2000–2020. The applicability of three objective methods, namely principal component analysis, entropy weighing method, and spatial distance model, was verified against field data, and the effectiveness of implementing major ecological programs was discussed. The results showed that: (1) EV intensity of the study area remained at a relatively high level, and its spatial distribution exhibited apparent latitude-longitude zonality and spatially stratified heterogeneity; (2) EV decreased in 41.926% of the study area but continued to increase in 1.235%, and it exhibited an overall conversion pattern of “significant decrease in large areas and increase in small areas” in the past 21 years; (3) the effectiveness of ecological programs determined their impacts on EV, regulating the contribution and interaction of water resources, vegetation cover, soil degradation, and human activities, and promoting sustainable development of the ecosystem in a vulnerable cycle; and (4) urban expansion was achieved at the cost of occupying cropland and ecological land, and became the primary cause for the increased EV. The framework presented in this study is suitable for large-scale EV assessment, even at the global scale, with higher application potential. The results have important reference value for ecological protection, land resource utilization and sustainable development of similar vulnerable ecosystems, which are helpful for formulating sustainable and coordinated development policies.
15. The circular economy mitigates the material rebound due to investments in renewable energy
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 402, 20 May 2023, 136753
The current macroeconomic models of the circular economy rely on the unrealistic assumption that materials can be recycled infinitely, often ignoring price and demand adjustments. In reality, most virgin materials are recycled only a few times, while the proliferation of cheap products made from recycled materials is likely to affect final demand. In this paper, we address both of these shortcomings. We propose a novel climate-economy agent-based model of the circular economy combined with the climate cycle and opinion dynamics. Consumers and producers are embedded in co-evolving networks, with preferences of consumers influencing the direction of technological progress and the diffusion of goods made from recycled materials. The main novelty of our study is that we compare the macroeconomic consequences of inputs being recycled once, twice and infinitely. We find that the more times materials are recycled, the more global temperature and resource depletion decrease. In addition, our study shows that the transition to renewable energy leads to the material rebound effect, where more raw materials are used in the manufacturing sector compared to an economy dependent on fossil fuels. Whether the circular economy can mitigate this effect depends on how many times inputs are recycled.
16. Pathways for the utilization of visualization techniques in designing participatory natural resource policy and management
Volume 333, 1 May 2023, 117407, Journal of Environmental Management
One of the most significant social movements of the late 1960s and early 1970s was the endeavor to increasingly involve the public in planning and policymaking (Sewell and Phillips, 1979). Since then, the engagement of stakeholders, individuals, or groups in natural resource decision-making has been gradually identified as an influential and desirable factor in natural resource management (Banerjee et al., 2020; Pereira and Ribeiro, 2021; Vukomanovic et al., 2019). According to participatory theorists, meaningful public participation results in better decisions, promotes societal stability by creating a feeling of community, enhances collective decision-making, and elevates acceptance and respect for the political system (Callahan, 2007). It is argued that to achieve better societal outcomes regarding inclusivity and justice, the overall objective for integrating the public in the decision-making process should be to initially move from non-participation to indirect participation, where professional administrators and elected officials act on citizens’ behalf.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Life cycle assessment of end-of-life options for cellulose-based bioplastics when introduced into a municipal solid waste management system
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 871, 1 May 2023, 161958
The partial degradation of cellulose-based bioplastics in industrial treatment of organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) opened to the investigation of further disposal routes for bioplastics in the waste management system. For this purpose, the environmental footprint of three MSW management scenarios differing only for the bioplastics final destination (organic, plastic or mixed waste streams) was assessed through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Results revealed how the treatment of bioplastics with organic waste achieved the worst environmental performance (5.8 kg CO2 eq/FU) for most impact categories. On the other hand, treatment with plastics and mixed waste achieved negative impact values (that mean avoided GHG emissions) of −9.8 and −7.7 kg CO2 eq/FU respectively, showing comparable benefits from these scenarios. The key reason was the lower quality of compost obtained from the organic treatment route, which reduced the environmental credits achieved by the energy recovery during anaerobic digestion.
2. Urbanization does not endanger food security: Evidence from China’s Loess Plateau
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 871, 1 May 2023, 162053
The expansion of construction land due to urbanization is the most rapid land use change in contemporary human history and has always occupied high-quality cropland, posing a severe threat to cropland and food security, it’s essential to clarify the impact of urbanization on cropland and food security. This study proposed a research framework based on the regulating role of human activities, used quantifiable complex network analysis to uncover the vital role of urbanization in the evolution of land systems, and combined trajectory analysis of crop yield change to explore the impact of different urbanization modes (urban, town, and township mode) on food security through a continuous observation on 4259 township-level administrative regions of the Loess Plateau from 1990 to 2020. The findings proved that urbanization occupied the greatest land use area of cropland, and the town mode occupied 58.62 % of all urbanization modes encroaching on cropland, which has become a new pattern for advancing the urbanization development in the Loess Plateau. Construction land is more likely to be transferred in than out in the land use transfer network, while other land use types converted to construction land will be difficult to reverse. The Chinese government has implemented pragmatic policies, improved agricultural production techniques, and promoted agricultural intensification, resulting in a considerable increase in crop productivity and crop yield and the achievement of basic crop yield self-sufficiency of the Loess Plateau, so urbanization would not endanger food security. This study not only provides a more systematic research framework for related studies but also provides a theoretical basis for securing food security in other rapidly urbanizing regions of the world.
3. Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in sewage from buildings housing residents with different vulnerability levels Science of
The Total Environment, Volume 872, 10 May 2023, 162116
During the last three years, various restrictions have been set up to limit the transmission of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). While these rules apply at a large scale (e.g., country-wide level) human-to-human transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), occurs at a small scale. Different preventive policies and testing protocols were implemented in buildings where COVID-19 poses a threat (e.g., elderly residences) or constitutes a disruptive force (e.g., schools). In this study, we sampled sewage from different buildings (a school, a university campus, a university residence, and an elderly residence) that host residents of different levels of vulnerability. Our main goal was to assess the agreement between the SARS-CoV-2 concentration in wastewater and the policies applied in these buildings. All buildings were sampled using passive samplers while 24 h composite samples were also collected from the elderly residence. Results showed that passive samplers performed comparably well to composite samples while being cost-effective to keep track of COVID-19 prevalence. In the elderly residence, the comparison of sampling protocols (passive vs. active) combined with the strict clinical testing allowed us to compare the sensitivities of the two methods. Active sampling was more sensitive than passive sampling, as the former was able to detect a COVID-19 prevalence of 0.4 %, compared to a prevalence of 2.2 % for passive sampling. The number of COVID-19-positive individuals was tracked clinically in all the monitored buildings. More frequent detection of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater was observed in residential buildings than in non-residential buildings using passive samplers. In all buildings, sewage surveillance can be used to complement COVID-19 clinical testing regimes, as the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater remained positive even when no COVID-19-positive individuals were reported. Passive sampling is useful for building managers to adapt their COVID-19 mitigation policies.
4. Effect of agricultural soil wind erosion on urban PM2.5 concentrations simulated by WRF-Chem and WEPS: A case study in Kaifeng, China
Chemosphere, Volume 323, May 2023, 138250
Dust emission induced by agricultural soil wind erosion is one of the main sources of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in dryland areas. However, most current air quality models do not consider this emission source, resulting in large uncertainties in PM simulations. Here we estimated the agricultural PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm) emission around Kaifeng, a prefecture-level city in central China, using the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS), with the MEIC (Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China) as an anthropogenic emission source. We then plugged these estimates into the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) to simulate an air pollution episode in Kaifeng, China. Results showed that the addition of agricultural soil PM2.5 emissions significantly improved the ability of WRF-Chem to accurately simulate PM2.5 concentrations. The PM2.5 concentration mean bias and correlation coefficient of not considered and considered agricultural dust emission were −72.35 μg m−3 and 3.31 μg m−3 and 0.3 and 0.58, respectively. The PM2.5 emitted by the agricultural soil wind erosion contributed around 37.79% of the PM2.5 in the Kaifeng municipal district during this pollution episode. This study confirmed that the dust emission caused by agricultural soil wind erosion can significantly impact urban PM2.5 concentrations which surrounded by large areas of farmland, and also indicated that coupling dust emissions from farmland with anthropogenic air pollutant emissions can improve the accuracy of air quality models.
5. Review of microplastics in the indoor environment: Distribution, human exposure and potential health impacts
Chemosphere, Volume 324, May 2023, 138270
The emergence of microplastics (MPs) pollution as a global environmental concern has attracted significant attention in the last decade. The majority of the human population spends most of their time indoors, leading to increased exposure to MPs contamination through various sources such as settled dust, air, drinking water and food. Although research on indoor MPs has intensified significantly in recent years, comprehensive reviews on this topic remain limited. Therefore, this review comprehensively analyses the occurrence, distribution, human exposure, potential health impact and mitigation strategies of MPs in the indoor air environment. Specifically, we focus on the risks associated with finer MPs that can translocate into the circulatory system and other organs, emphasizing the need for continued research to develop effective strategies to mitigate the risks associated with MPs exposure. Our findings suggest that indoor MPs impose potential risk to human health, and strategies for mitigating exposure should be further explored.
6. Short-term impact of noise, other air pollutants and meteorological factors on emergency hospital mental health admissions in the Madrid region
Environmental Research, Volume 224, 1 May 2023, 115505
A number of environmental factors, such as air pollution, noise in urbanised settings and meteorological-type variables, may give rise to important effects on human health. In recent years, many studies have confirmed the relation between various mental disorders and these factors, with a possible impact on the increase in emergency hospital admissions due to these causes. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of a range of environmental factors on daily emergency hospital admissions due to mental disorders in the Madrid Autonomous Region (MAR), across the period 2013–2018.
Longitudinal ecological time series study analysed by Generalised Linear Models with Poisson regression, with the dependent variable being daily Emergency Hospital Mental Health Admissions (EHMHA) in the MAR, and the independent variable being mean daily concentrations of chemical pollutants, noise levels and meteorological variables.
EHMHA were related statistically significantly in the short term with diurnal noise levels. Relative risks (RRs) for total admissions due to mental disorders and self-inflicted injuries, in the case of diurnal noise was RR: 1.008 95%CI (1.003 1.013). Admissions attributable to diurnal noise account for 5.5% of total admissions across the study period. There was no association between hospital admissions and chemical air pollution.
Noise is a variable that shows a statistically significant short-term association with EHMHA across all age groups in the MAR region. The results of this study may serve as a basis for drawing up public health guidelines and plans, which regard these variables as risk factors for mental disorders, especially in the case of noise, since this fundamentally depends on anthropogenic activities in highly urbanised areas with high levels of traffic density.
7. Relationship of long-term air pollution exposure with asthma and rhinitis in Italy: an innovative multipollutant approach
Environmental Research, Volume 224, 1 May 2023, 115455
Air pollution is a complex mixture; novel multipollutant approaches could help understanding the health effects of multiple concomitant exposures to air pollutants.
Aim to assess the relationship of long-term air pollution exposure with the prevalence of respiratory/allergic symptoms and diseases in an Italian multicenter study using single and multipollutant approaches.
14420 adults living in 6 Italian cities (Ancona, Pavia, Pisa, Sassari, Turin, Verona) were investigated in 2005–2011 within 11 different study cohorts. Questionnaire information about risk factors and health outcomes was collected. Machine learning derived mean annual concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and mean summer concentrations of O3 (μg/m3) at residential level (1-km resolution) were used for the period 2013–2015. The associations between the four pollutants and respiratory/allergic symptoms/diseases were assessed using two approaches: a) logistic regression models (single-pollutant models), b) principal component logistic regression models (multipollutant models). All the models were adjusted for age, sex, education level, smoking habits, season of interview, climatic index and included a random intercept for cohorts.
The three-year average (± standard deviation) pollutants concentrations at residential level were: 20.3 ± 6.8 μg/m3 for PM2.5, 29.2 ± 7.0 μg/m3 for PM10, 28.0 ± 11.2 μg/m3 for NO2, and 70.9 ± 4.3 μg/m3 for summer O3. Through the multipollutant models the following associations emerged: PM10 and PM2.5 were related to 14–25% increased odds of rhinitis, 23–34% of asthma and 30–33% of night awakening; NO2 was related to 6–9% increased odds of rhinitis, 7–8% of asthma and 12% of night awakening; O3 was associated with 37% increased odds of asthma attacks. Overall, the Odds Ratios estimated through the multipollutant models were attenuated when compared to those of the single-pollutant models.
This study enabled to obtain new information about the health effects of air pollution on respiratory/allergic outcomes in adults, applying innovative methods for exposure assessment and multipollutant analyses.
8. Investigation of the chemical nature of precipitation and source apportionment of its constituents in Tehran metropolis, Iran
Environmental Research, Volume 225, 15 May 2023, 115587
Precipitation is a key process for purifying the atmosphere of pollutants. However, precipitation chemistry is also a significant environmental catastrophe on a global scale. Tehran Metropolitan Area, Iran’s capital, is one of the world’s most polluted cities. Nonetheless, little effort has been paid to determining the chemical composition of precipitation in this polluted metropolis. The chemical components and likely sources of trace metals and water-soluble ions in precipitation samples collected from 2021 to 2022 at an urban location in Tehran, Iran, were investigated in this study. The pH of the rainwater samples varied from 6.330 to 7.940 (mean 7.313, volume weighted mean (VWM) 7.523). The following is the order of the VWM concentration of main ions: Ca2+ > HCO3- > Na+ >SO42- > NH4+ > Cl− > NO3- > Mg2+> K+> F−. Furthermore, we discovered that VWM concentrations for trace elements are modest, with the exception of Sr (39.104 eq L−1). The primary neutralizing species for precipitation acidity were Ca2+ and NH4+. Vertical feature mask (VFM) diagrams derived from cloud-aerosol lidar and infrared pathfinder satellite observation (CALIPSO) track data indicated that polluted dust was the most common pollutant in the Tehran sky that might contribute significantly to the neutralization of precipitation. A study of species concentration ratios in seawater and the earth’s crust indicated that virtually all Se, Sr, Zn, Mg2+, NO3-, and SO42- were anthropogenic. While Cl− was largely obtained from sea salt, K+ was obtained from both the earth’s crust and the sea, with the earth’s crust playing a larger role in K+. The earth’s crust, aged sea salt, industry, and combustion processes were all verified as sources of trace metals and water-soluble ions by positive matrix factorization analysis.
9. Investigation of the chemical nature of precipitation and source apportionment of its constituents in Tehran metropolis, Iran
Environmental Research, Volume 225, 15 May 2023, 115587
The study investigated and compared the anaerobic digestion (AD) of real organic fraction municipal solid waste (OFMSW) prior pre-treated with four types of pre-treatments: mechanical, thermal, hydrodynamic-cavitation (HC), and ultrasound (US). The tested pre-treatments and AD configurations were selected through Design of Experiments and then regression models were built to find the most promising configurations in terms of biogas production and energetic sustainability of the whole process. The novelty of the research is the simultaneously study of the working conditions of the pre-treatments; and AD parameters like the two origins of the inoculum, its incubation time, and the substrate: inoculum ratio (SI).
The results demonstrated that the best configurations of pre-treatments and AD were the ones performed with thermal pre-treatment at 120 °C for 45 min (with inoculum incubation of 10 d at substrate: inoculum (SI) ratio of 2:1) and HC at 55 °C (with inoculum incubation of 10 d at SI of 3:1). The thermal, and to some extent the mechanical pre-treatment, evidenced as significant the interaction between the pre-treatment time and the inoculum incubation time. AD of US-OFMSW achieved the lowest performances since inhibition occurred, probably due to the lignocellulosic inhibitors release after ultrasound pre-treatment.
10. Algal-bacterial aerobic granular sludge for real municipal wastewater treatment: Performance, microbial community change and feasibility of lipid recovery
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 333, 1 May 2023, 117374
Despite various research works on algal-bacterial aerobic granular sludge for wastewater treatment and resource recovery processes, limited information is available on its application in real wastewater treatment in terms of performance, microbial community variation and resource recovery. This study investigated the performance of algal-bacterial aerobic granular sludge on real low-strength wastewater treatment in addition to the characterization of microbial community and fatty acid compositions for biodiesel production. The results demonstrated 71% COD, 77% NH4+-N and 31% phosphate removal efficiencies, respectively. In addition, all the water parameters successfully met the effluent standard A, imposed by the Department of Environment (DOE) Malaysia. Core microbiome analyses revealed important microbial groups (i.e., Haliangium ochraceum, Burkholderiales and Chitinophagaceae) in bacterial community. Meanwhile the photosynthetic microorganisms, such as Oxyphotobacteria and Trebouxiophyceae dominated the algal-bacterial aerobic granular sludge, suggesting their important roles in granulation and wastewater treatment. Up to 12.51 mg/gSS lipid content was recovered from the granules. In addition, fatty acids composition showed high percetages of C16:0 and C18:0, demonstrating high feasibility to be used for biodiesel production application indicated by the cetane number, iodine value and oxidation stability properties.
11. Ecological challenges in the economic recovery of resource-depleted cities in China
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 333, 1 May 2023, 117406
The depletion of resource reserves will cause stagnation of socio-economic development in resource-based cities. The formation of new sources of economic growth in resource-depleted cities can profoundly change the structure of human activities and affect the environment. The Chinese government has established a list of resource-depleted cities in three batches since 2008 to support these cities in finding new sources of economic growth. The article analyzes the impact of the regeneration process of resource-based cities on ecosystem quality. The paper constructs an inter-city panel dataset covering 281 cities from 2003 to 2018. The article valued the habitat quality of Chinese cities. Habitat quality index and normalized vegetation index were used to measure the long-term and short-term ecological impacts of economic recovery in resource-based cities. Using a difference-in-difference technique, the results show that the central government’s economic support for resource-based cities significantly improves the condition of urban ecosystems. However, the long-term ecological effects are still smaller than the short-term changes in ecosystems. The transmission path of support policies affecting the ecological quality of cities depends on the shift in industrial structure and economic scale at the provincial level. In addition, urban-rural differences, regional distribution, and resource endowment also significantly affect the ecological effects of supportive policies.
12 Reintroducing a keystone bioturbator can facilitate microbial bioremediation in urban polluted sediments
Environmental Pollution, Volume 324, 1 May 2023, 121419
Anthropogenic environmental stressors have significantly reduced biodiversity and the capacity of remnant natural habitats to deliver ecosystem functions and services in urban areas. To mitigate these impacts and recover biodiversity and function, ecological restoration strategies are needed. While habitat restoration is proliferating in rural and peri-urban areas, strategies purposely designed to succeed under the environmental, social and political pressures of urban areas are lacking. Here, we propose that ecosystem health in marine urban areas can be improved by restoring biodiversity to the most dominant habitat, unvegetated sediments. We reintroduced a native ecosystem engineer, the sediment bioturbating worm Diopatra aciculata, and assessed their effects on microbial biodiversity and function. Results showed that worms can affect the diversity of microbes, but effects varied between locations. Worms caused shifts in microbial community composition and function at all locations. Specifically, the abundance of microbes capable of chlorophyll production (i.e. benthic microalgae) increased and the abundance of microbes capable of methane production decreased. Moreover, worms increased the abundances of microbes capable of denitrification in the site with lowest sediment oxygenation. Worms also affected microbes capable of degrading the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon toluene, although the direction of that effect was site-specific. This study provides evidence that a simple intervention such as the reintroduction of a single species can enhance sediment functions important for the amelioration of contamination and eutrophication, although further studies are needed to understand the variation in outcomes between sites. Nevertheless, restoration strategies targeting unvegetated sediments provide an opportunity to combat anthropogenic stressors in urban ecosystems and may be used for precondition before more traditional forms of habitat restoration such as seagrass, mangrove and shellfish restoration.
13. The feedback effects of aerosols from different sources on the urban boundary layer in Beijing, China
Environmental Pollution, Volume 325, 15 May 2023, 121440
The interaction of aerosols and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) plays an important role in deteriorating urban air quality. Aerosols from different sources may have different effects on regulating PBL structures owing to their distinctive dominant compositions and vertical distributions. To characterize the complex feedback of aerosols on PBL over the Beijing megacity, multiple approaches, including in situ observations in the autumn and winter of 2016–2019, backward trajectory clusters, and large-eddy simulations, were adopted. The results revealed notable distinctions in aerosol properties, vertical distributions and thermal stratifications among three types of air masses from the West Siberian Plain (Type-1), Central Siberian Plateau (Type-2) and Mongolian Plateau (Type-3). Low loadings of 0.28 ± 0.26 and 0.15 ± 0.08 of aerosol optical depth (AOD) appeared in the Type-1 and Type-2, accompanied by cool and less stable stratification, with a large part (80%) of aerosols concentrated below 1500 m. For Type-3, the AOD and single scattering albedo (SSA) were as high as 0.75 ± 0.54 and 0.91 ± 0.05, demonstrating severe pollution levels of abundant scattering aerosols. Eighty percent of the aerosols were constrained within a lower height of 1150 m owing to the warmer and more stable environment. Large-eddy simulations revealed that aerosols consistently suppressed the daytime convective boundary layer regardless of their origins, with the PBL height (PBLH) decreasing from 1120 m (Type-1), 1160 m (Type-2) and 820 m (Type-3) in the ideal clean scenarios to 980 m, 1100 m and 600 m, respectively, under polluted conditions. Therefore, the promotion of absorbing aerosols below the residual layer on PBL could be greatly hindered by the suppression effects generated by both absorbing aerosols in the upper temperature inversion layer and scattering aerosols. Moreover, the results indicated the possible complexities of aerosol-PBL interactions under future emission-reduction scenarios and in other urban regions.
14. Stagnant water environmental management in urban river networks: An integrated risk analysis involving hydraulic potential dissipation
Journal of Hydrology, Available online 15 May 2023, 129652
Rapid urbanization has led to water stagnation by temporal and spatial imbalances of the hydrodynamics in urban river networks, which further entails environmental risks to drinking and recreational water supplies. The establishment of a succinct hydraulic potential dissipation (HPD) index to indicate the spatiotemporal stagnant water environmental risks quickly and intuitively is of vital significance to urban river networks with complicated water regimes and diversified water diversion measures. On this basis, an integrated stagnant water environmental risk analysis model (ISWERA) was established by coupling the process-based model and stochastic process to comprehensively and accurately assess risks, which has been calibrated and validated against the real data of 11 monitoring stations from May 3 to May 11 in 2017 and November 28 to December 10 in 2020, respectively. To represent the rationality of stagnant water environmental risks assessment using HPD, ISWERA was used to evaluate the temporal- and spatial-varying stagnant water environmental risk intensity and probability of 270 water diversion schemes formed by the combination of water diversion duration, flow, route, and potential in the Changzhou urban river network along the Yangtze River. For time-varying results, it revealed that cumulative risk intensity was reduced from 1300 to 1100, and risk probability was significantly reduced by nearly 50% with the increase of diversion duration to 5 days in general. For spatial-varying results, most of the rivers reached the low-risk grade under the optimized diversion duration, flow, route, and potential. While the rivers adjacent to densely populated areas still presented a middle-risk state. The positive correlation was significant between HPD and stagnant water environmental risk intensity and probability results, with R2 = 0.86 and 0.74 respectively. When the upstream HPD of F1 to S1, F2 to S2, and F3 to S3 keep below 63.4%, 74.1%, and 57.7% and the downstream HPD of S1 to T1, S2 to T2, S2 to T3, and S3 to T4 keep below 40.6%, 32.9%, 22.4%, and 19.1%, the stagnant water environmental risk is lower. Arguably, this study could provide a scientific reference and foundation for water environmental management of similar urban stagnant water systems.
15. On kids’ environmental wellbeing and their access to nature in urban heat islands: Hyperlocal microclimate analysis via surveys, modelling, and wearable sensing in urban playgrounds
Urban Climate, Volume 49, May 2023, 101447
The aim of this research is to investigate the environmental wellbeing of children in urban outdoor environments by developing and testing a new wearable device called the Baby c-air. Children are particularly vulnerable to environmental discomfort due to their physiological characteristics and lack of awareness about their own adaptation capabilities. This vulnerability can lead to childhood diseases and health issues, especially when exposed to overheating or continuous pollutants. Portable monitoring devices, such as the Baby c-air, can assess children’s environmental exposure and provide timely information to limit their health risks.The study involved testing two prototypes of the Baby c-air under laboratory and in-field conditions to verify the accuracy of the device in collecting data. An experimental campaign involving 122 children was conducted in Italy during the summer, across four playgrounds. The option of integrating the COMFA-kid model for thermal comfort assessment was evaluated. The results indicated that microclimate peculiarities underline the importance of a human-centric approach for properly addressing environmental exposure. The discrepancies between thermal sensations provided by interviewed parents/tutors and predicted thermal sensations derived by the COMFA-kid model suggest that adults are generally weakly aware of children’s thermal conditions.The Baby c-air can support children’s adaptation potential and drive accompanying persons towards implementing conscious behaviors or moving to those areas with better environmental quality. The outcomes of this study can contribute towards urban outdoor design guidelines to improve children’s well-being.
16. Climate and edaphic factors drive soil nematode diversity and community composition in urban ecosystems
Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 180, May 2023, 109010
Rapid urbanization profoundly affects global biodiversity. How urbanization modifies soil biodiversity and perturbs nematodes remains limited. Here, we investigated soil nematodes in four land-use types: Parks, residential areas, natural forests, and maize fields across 12 cities in China. Urban parks and surrounding forests had similar nematode richness exceeding that in urban residential areas and surrounding farmlands. Nematode communities in parks and residential areas were, however, more homogenous than in forests and farmlands. Variations in nematode assemblages in both core urban and urban surroundings were mainly due to taxa replacement, indicating that nematodes were spatially isolated in cities. Urban residential areas were colonized by the lowest number of specialists (i.e., with narrow niche width) and smaller body sizes. Urban parks, conversely, served as hotspots for soil nematodes in cities. Together, our results indicate that urbanization processes reduce nematode diversity, with e.g., 30% loss in residential areas compared to forests, and homogenize soil nematode communities.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Living membrane bioreactor for highly effective and eco-friendly treatment of textile waste water
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 871, 1 May 2023, 161963
The treatability of synthetic textile wastewater containing model dyes, such as reactive black and direct black dye (25.0 ± 2.6 mgdye/L), with chemical oxygen demand (COD, 1000 ± 113 mg/L), ammonia‑nitrogen (NH3-N, 140 ± 97 mg/L) and sulphate ions (SO₄2−, 1357 ± 10.86 mg/L) was investigated in this study using an innovative living membrane bioreactor (LMBR) using an encapsulated self-forming dynamic membrane (ESFDM). The key advantage of ESFDMBR is the self-forming of the biological filtering layer protected between two meshes of inert robust and inexpensive material. A laboratory scale bioreactor (BR) equipped with a filtering unit mounting polyester meshes with a pore size of 30 μm, operated at an influent flux of 30 LMH was thus used. After the formation of the biological living membrane (LM), the treatment significantly reduced COD and DOC concentrations to the average values of 34 ± 10 mg/L and 32 ± 7 mg/L, corresponding to reduction efficiencies of 96.0 ± 1.1 % and 94 ± 1.05 %, respectively. Throughout the LMBR operation, the colours were successfully removed from synthetic textile wastewater with an overall removal efficiency of about 85.0 ± 1.8 and 86.0 ± 1.9 % for direct and reactive dyes, respectively. In addition, the proposed system was also found effective in affording removal efficiency of ammonia (NH3) of 97 ± 0.5 %. Finally, this treatment afforded circa 40.7 ± 5.8 % sulphate removal, with a final concentration value of 805 ± 78.61 mg/L. The innovative living membrane, based on an encapsulated self-forming dynamic membrane allows a prolonged containment of the membrane fouling, confirmed by investigating the concentration of membrane fouling precursors and the time-course variations of turbidity and transmembrane pressure (TMP). Those final concentrations of wastewater pollutants were found to be below the limits for admission of the effluents in public sanitation networks in Italy and Tunisia, as representative countries for the regulation in force in Europe and North Africa. In conclusion, due to the low costs of plant and maintenance, the simple applicability, the rapid online implementation, the application of LMBR results in a promising method for the treatment of textile wastewater.
2. Towards a circular economy in virgin olive oil production: Valorization of the olive mill waste (OMW) “alpeorujo” through polyphenol recovery with natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) and vermi composting
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 872, 10 May 2023, 162198
Virgin olive oil (VOO) production generates large amounts of a harmful by-product, olive mill waste (OMW) or alpeorujo, which has a strong environmental impact and that must be recycled to adapt VOO production to a circular economy model. Here, the valorization of OMW was studied by considering three consecutive stages: Stage 1 involves the generation of OMW; Stage 2 the recovery of bioactive phenolic compounds from the fresh OMW using natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs), generating a valuable phenolic extract and a new by-product, a dephenolized OMW named “alpeoNADES”; and Stage 3 involves vermicomposting alpeoNADES with Eisenia fetida earthworms. Six NADES were formulated and tested, selecting a NADES composed of citric acid and fructose (CF) derived from food grade and biodegradable substances. CF was the most effective solvent to obtain phenolic extracts for nutraceutical and agronomical purposes, extracting 3988.74 mg/kg of polyphenols from fresh OMW. This alpeoNADES is a non-palatable substrate for E. fetida earthworms, as the residual CF gives it an acidic pH (pH 2). Its palatability was improved by mixing it with horse manure and straw for vermicomposting, in a 1:1 and 3:1 dry weight ratio. When these substrates were precomposted for 3 weeks they reached pH 5.5–6 and they could then be vermicomposted for 23 weeks (using OMW as a control). The best substrate for vermicomposting was determined by the worm biomass, growth rate, carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio, and N and P content. AlpeoNADES and manure 3:1 produced the highest quality vermicompost in the shortest time, generating a product that complied with European standards for organic fertilizers. Hence, alpeoNADES was recycled to a low-cost, organic balanced fertilizer in Stage 3, enabling the olive oil industry to transition to sustainable production through this integrated circular economy design.
3. Contamination characteristics of polycyclic aromatic compounds from coal sources in typical coal mining areas in Huaibei area, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 873, 15 May 2023, 162311
The Huaibei area is rich in coal resources and serves as the main energy production base in East China. However, serious environmental consequences are associated with coal mining and utilization. With increasing reports on distribution and risks by polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), the potential pollution of coal sources must be addressed. Here, the PAC concentrations in the topsoil, coal, and coal gangue of a typical coal mining area in Huaibei were evaluated. The mean ΣPACs in topsoil, coal, and coal gangue were 1528.3, 274,815.8, and 10,908.3 μg·kg−1, respectively. Alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (aPAHs) were identified as primary contributors to PACs, and the concentrations of oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) were significantly higher in coal and coal gangue than in topsoil. PAC pollution was mainly concentrated in the coal mine area and near the coal gangue landfill road. Not only sixteen high priority pollutant PAHs (16PAHs), but PAH derivatives also contributed to the organic pollution from coal sources. Principal components analysis, multiple linear regression, characteristic ratios, and positive matrix factor analysis were used to trace PAC sources. The characteristic ratios for organic pollution from coal and gangue particles involving 16PAHs, aPAHs, and oPAHs were proposed. Further, the high–ring 16PAH ratio was also found suitable for coal mining areas. The Monte–Carlo risk assessment showed that coal particles were highly carcinogenic, and despite the low carcinogenicity of coal gangue and topsoil, they might also serve as potential carcinogens. This study aimed to disseminate knowledge on PACs from coal and coal gangue, provide a useful background for efficient resource utilization of coal gangue, and a reference for tracing PAC sources in coal mine environment media.
4. Heavy metal fraction, pollution, and source-oriented risk assessment in biofilms on a river system polluted by mining activities
Chemosphere, Volume 322, May 2023, 138137
The Lanping Pb–Zn mine is the largest source of Pb and Zn ores in China, thus posing a great threat to local ecosystems and human health. A total of seven heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Cd, and As) in the Bijiang River near the Pb–Zn mine were measured in winter and summer to assess their spatial–temporal enrichment, ecological risk, and source-oriented health risk in periphytic biofilms. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model and clustering analysis were used to quantitatively identify pollution sources. The results of PMF were then imported into the health risk assessment to further determine the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks of various pollution sources. The results indicated distinct seasonal patterns in metal concentrations, with much higher concentrations in winter. Sites near the Pb–Zn mine tailing reservoir exhibited higher metal contamination levels than other sites. A strong correlation between the enrichment factor and the levels of nonresidual fraction suggested that anthropogenic inputs were the main source of these metals. Mining industries (Cd, Zn, and Pb), natural sources (As, Ni, and Cu), and agricultural activities (Cr) were the primary sources of heavy metal pollution in biofilms, accounting for 44.43%, 33.32%, and 22.26% of the total metal accumulation, respectively. Moreover, the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks via dermal contact of the studied elements in biofilms were typically acceptable. Notably, as concentration was the main factor influencing these risks in children and adults. This study provides evidence that natural epilithic periphyton may be a potential metal biomonitor in aquatic systems and provide supporting information for effective source regulation.
5. Preparation and characterization of a novel cobalt-substitution cadmium aluminate spinel for the photodegradation of azo dye pollutants
Chemosphere, Volume 323, May 2023, 138232
Modern-year organic contaminants have been highly observed in ecosystems since they are not removed entirely and remain dangerous. Semiconductor binary oxide photocatalysts have been well accredited as capable technology for ecological contaminants degradation in the existence of visible irradiation. In this research, novel Co ions doped CdAl2O4 materials were fabricated by a facile co-precipitation approach. The fabricated pure and Co-doped CdAl2O4 exhibited the typical peaks of CdAl2O4 with the Eg of 3.66, 3.24, 2.57, and 2.41 eV respectively. The HR-TEM microstructures revealed that the Co (0.075 M) doped CdAl2O4 has rod-like morphology, and some places are spherical with particle sizes reaching 21 nm. The PL peaks of the Co (0.075 M)-CdAl2O4 are much lesser than that of the other dopant and pure CdAl2O4, representing much more effectual separation of generated e− and h+ at the interface which in fact outcomes in superior expected photodegradation behaviours. The Co (0.075 M)-CdAl2O4 catalyst demonstrated the highest performances of 92 and 94% toward the degradation of both dyes, respectively, owing to the lowest e− and h+ recombination rate. The Co (0.075 M) doped CdAl2O4 photocatalyst revealed outstanding reusability and stability under visible irradiation, retaining the performance of about 83 and 86% after the fifth consecutive run of BB and BG elimination. A probable photodegradation mechanism of Co (0.075 M) doped CdAl2O4 was suggested since the photoexcited h+, OH− and O2− species contributed to the removal process, and that was affirmed by the scavenging test and ESR analysis. This research offers new ways to improve the photodegradation performance of the Co-doped CdAl2O4 catalyst that will be employed in pharmaceutical applications and wastewater treatment.
6. Remediation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers contaminated soil in the e-waste disposal site by ball milling modified zero valent iron activated persulfate
Chemosphere, Volume 324, May 2023, 138376
Hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in e-waste disposal sites are difficult to remove effectively. There is little reported about zero valent iron (ZVI) coupled with persulfate (PS) to achieve the removal of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) from soil. In this work, we have prepared the flake submicron zero valent iron by ball milling with boric acid (B-mZVIbm) at a low cost. Sacrifice experiments results showed that 56.6% of BDE209 was removed in 72 h with PS/B-mZVIbm, which was 2.12 times than that of micron zero valent iron (mZVI). The morphology, crystal form, atomic valence, composition, and functional group of B-mZVIbm were determined by SEM, XRD, XPS, and FTIR, and the results indicated that the oxide layer on the surface of mZVI is replaced by borides. The results of EPR indicated that hydroxyl radical and sulfate radical played the dominant role in the degradation of BDE209. The degradation products of BDE209 were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), accordingly, the possible degradation pathway was further proposed. The research suggested that ball milling with mZVI and boric acid is a low-cost means of preparing highly active zero valent iron materials. And the mZVIbm has promising applications in improving the activation efficiency of PS and enhancing the removal of the contaminant.
7. Exploring the role of co-agglomeration of manufacturing and producer services on carbon productivity: An empirical study of 282 cities in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 399, 1 May 2023, 136674
Carbon productivity is a better measure of a region’s sustainable economic growth since it considers economic development and carbon emissions at the same time. It is crucial to improve carbon productivity through the co-agglomeration of manufacturing and producer services for China. To better understand the effect and mechanism of co-agglomeration, this study uses panel data of 282 Chinese cities from 2003 to 2017 to examine the effect of manufacturing and producer services co-agglomeration on carbon productivity. Further, moderating effects models and panel threshold models are used to investigate the mechanisms of co-agglomeration effect on carbon productivity. The results suggest that the influence of co-agglomeration on carbon productivity is U-shaped with an inflection point of 3.63, indicating that a high level of co-agglomeration is required for carbon productivity to increase. Compared with other cities, cities in the eastern region or with a large scale have lower inflection points. The upgrading of industrial structure, production efficiency, and the production chain has a positive moderating effect on the influence of co-agglomeration on carbon productivity, while upgrading of non-production chains does not. When the levels of capital misallocation and labor misallocation reach the threshold of 1.115 and 1.557 respectively, industrial co-agglomeration has a promoting effect on carbon productivity. This research offers valuable insights for optimizing the urban industrial layout to improve carbon productivity.
8. Exploring food loss in the food industry: A survey-based approach for Lithuania
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 399, 1 May 2023, 136668
Food loss and waste is relevant for all stages of a food supply chain. Methodological and empirical solutions are needed to properly quantify these losses. The present paper embarks on the quantification of food loss in the Lithuanian food processing sector. This issue has not received substantial coverage in the literature yet, even though the transition economies face serious food losses due to malfunctioning markets and limited understanding of the issue of food loss and waste in general. In this paper, by exploiting the questionnaire survey, the food loss rates in the major sub-sectors of the Lithuanian food industry are assessed and the root causes behind food loss are identified. The results are then extrapolated to provide insights into the extent of food loss in the Lithuanian food industry as a whole. The results suggest that an estimated 10.9 thousand tonnes of food, or 4 kg per capita, may be lost at the processing level each year in the country. Issues related to processing operations as well as product non-compliance with commercial standards appear as the underlying causes for food loss.
9. Evaluation and empirical research on green mine construction in coal industry based on the AHP-SPA model
Resources Policy, Volume 82, May 2023, 103503
Green mine construction plays a crucial role in achieving sustainable development in the coal industry and promoting a low-carbon economy. However, evaluating the universal applicability of green mine construction standards and their effects remains a significant challenge. To address this issue, we propose an innovative approach by developing a comprehensive green mine evaluation index system based on eight dimensions: standardized management, technological innovation, environmental protection, land reclamation, community harmony, enterprise culture, comprehensive utilization, and energy saving and emission reduction. To evaluate green mine construction, we combine the analytic hierarchy process and set-pair analysis to provide a more accurate and comprehensive assessment. Our study provides new insights into the sustainability of coal mining operations. Firstly, we identify regional imbalances in green mine construction, with the eastern region leading in green mine construction, followed by the central and western regions, while the northeast region lags behind. Secondly, we find significant differences in the level of green mine construction among coal enterprises, with large coal enterprises showing higher levels of green mine construction due to their greater capital investment and advanced technology. Moreover, our study highlights the importance of technological innovation in green mine construction and its positive impact on promoting sustainable development. Our approach offers innovative methods for improving the evaluation of green mine construction and promoting sustainability in the coal industry, making it a valuable contribution to the field.
10. Arsenic pollution remediation mechanism and preliminary application of arsenic-oxidizing bacteria isolated from industrial waste water
Environmental Pollution, Volume 324, 1 May 2023, 121384
Microbial remediation is vital for improving heavy metal-polluted water. In this work, two bacterial strains, K1 (Acinetobacter gandensis) and K7 (Delftiatsuruhatensis), with high tolerance to and strong oxidation of arsenite [As(III)], were screened from industrial wastewater samples. These strains tolerated 6800 mg/L As(III) in a solid medium and 3000 mg/L (K1) and 2000 mg/L (K7) As(III) in a liquid medium; arsenic (As) pollution was repaired through oxidation and adsorption. The As(III) oxidation rates of K1 and K7 were the highest at 24 h (85.00 ± 0.86%) and 12 h (92.40 ± 0.78%), respectively, and the maximum gene expression levels of As oxidase in these strains were observed at 24 and 12 h. The As(III) adsorption efficiencies of K1 and K7 were 30.70 ± 0.93% and 43.40 ± 1.10% at 24 h, respectively. The strains exchanged and formed a complex with As(III) through the –OH, –CH3, and C]O groups, amide bonds, and carboxyl groups on the cell surfaces. When the two strains were co-immobilized with Chlorella, the adsorption efficiency of As(III) improved (76.46 ± 0.96%) within 180 min, thereby exhibiting good adsorption and removal effects of other heavy metals and pollutants. These results outlined an efficient and environmentally friendly method for the cleaner production of industrial wastewater.
11. Effect of income, industry structure, and environmental regulation on the ecological impacts of mining: An analysis for Guangxi Province in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 400, 10 May 2023, 136654
Mineral resource extraction is often accompanied by severe environmental pollution and ecological damage, hindering mining economies from achieving sustainable development. This paper aims to promote the goal of cleaner production in extractive industries from the perspective of environmental management through a more accurate understanding of how human activities affect the extractive industries. This requires more granular data for environmental damage in mining. The article proposes an ecological threat assessment framework for mining to support sustainable processes in the extractive industry. It integrates biophysical variables, technical indicators, and human activity data. The study is based on data at the mine level with 17 indicators used to evaluate the ecological impact of 13960 mines in Guangxi, China, from 2008-to 2018 in four dimensions: economic and technical indicators of mines themselves, surrounding economic activity, geological and environmental vulnerability, and ecological status of mining sites. Data from multiple sources were used to assess, map, and monitor ecological impacts in mining areas, such as high-resolution satellite images, interview data, environmental assessment reports, and mining rights data. We evaluated the ecological impact level of each mine and the extent to which spatial heterogeneity of regional economic and environmental preferences affected the degree of ecological impact. The results show that growth in population income has changed environmental preferences and driven down environmental disturbances in mines. Reduced dependence of regional economies on the industrial sector has also contributed to environmental improvements. In addition, increasing environmental regulation has limited the ecological impacts of mining, but these environmental regulation impacts are regionally heterogeneous. The effect of laws and rules is lower in cities and regions dependent on mineral resources, where resource extraction companies have more bargaining power. The results of this study will inform environmental management in the mining sector and support sustainable development in the region.
12. Who will pay for the decommissioned photovoltaic modules? Evidence from evolutionary game analysis of China’s photovoltaic industry under dynamic incentives
Solar Energy, Volume 255, 1 May 2023, Pages 314-326
Following the booming of the PV industry, the tide of photovoltaic modules decommissioning is developing fast to raise environmental concerns. The recycling and conversion of decommissioned photovoltaic modules (DPV) becomes a pressing challenge for the industry to sustain growth with less environmental burdens caused to the society. This study introduces Extended producer responsibility (EPR) and Environmental protection tax (EPT) into the governance framework of DPV recycling. Employing evolutionary game theory, this study develops a tripartite evolutionary game model comprising the government, PV enterprises, and households, based on which the interactions and strategic changes among them are revealed. Moreover, the evolutionary trajectory of DPV recycling industry, as well as the impact of driving factors on their strategic changes are verified through empirical simulations of China’s PV industry. It was found that DPV recycling industry will progress through three stages, namely initial stage, middle stage, mature stage, in which the government plays the role of leader and gradually withdraws its participation as the industry evolves. The dynamic incentives are effective in promoting the adoption of EPR, and the mixed incentives with a baseline of a comprehensive recycling rate of 70 % set by the government work best. The recycling efforts and the conversion benefit value promote DPV recycling through EPR by PV enterprises. Heavy environmental protection tax and heavy landfill costs also drive the implementation of EPR. It is suggested that China should implement regional incentive schemes incorporating regional characteristics to encourage DPV recycling locally. This study has certain reference values for the policy and strategy formulations to promote the development of DPV recycling industry.
13. Measuring green development index and coupling coordination of mining industry: An empirical analysis based on panel data in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, 15 May 2023,Volume 401, 136764
Due to the quick adaptation of the mining industry and demand for the mining industry is growing due to the need for minerals and metals, green mining industry has earned much support. China has taken specific actions and made the advancement of green mining a crucial part of establishing an eco-society. Growth tactics utilized by traditional mining economies had negative repercussions, including resource depletion and deteriorating environmental conditions. For China, when formulating reasonable and scientific policies, a fair evaluation of the mining industry’s level of green development has significant practical relevance. This study employed 16 common indicators divided into four categories: economical and intensive utilization, ecological environmental protection, scientific and technological innovation, safety and harmony, etc. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method and the entropy weight method (EWM) were used to reflect the relationship between indicators at different levels. In addition to the coupling of subsystems coordination model, which reveals the relationship between subsystems, scores of subindexes and weighted indicators are also derived. The empirical findings demonstrate that (1) despite non-cyclical fluctuations in the development of China’s green mining industry, the overall index exhibits an upward trend from year to year; (2) the coordination of China’s green mining industry subsystems is basically inconsistent, stage-wise balanced, and lacks precise coordination; and (3) the development of China’s green mining industry is challenging, especially in the management and resto areas. Furthermore, the framework for green mining growth described in this study can be applied to other regions or sectors.
14. Environmental impact assessment and potentials of material efficiency using by-products and waste materials
Construction and Building Materials, Volume 378, 16 May 2023, 131197
As sustainability is becoming a priority in the construction industry, concerns associated with the environmental impacts of the production and use of Portland cement (PC) are being raised. To respond to this challenge and among different strategies of material efficiency, the potential of by-products and recycling wastes to produce eco-friendly cement-based or cement-less construction materials is given greater emphasis. This research investigates the environmental assessment and carbon footprint of different building envelope walls using by-product and waste materials of energy-intensive processes including power plants, and steel and glass industries. Four different products that can be used in the concrete as the replacement of Portland cement including fly ash, ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS), Glass powder, and mix design of these materials are compared with the regular concrete mix to be used as an envelope wall. After that, the potentials of production and consumption of these materials in the concrete are assessed in Canada. Results show that GGBS concrete with 287 kg CO2 eq per m3 has the lowest CO2 emissions compared with other by-products/waste-used concrete. The CO2 emissions of fly ash concrete are 37% higher than GGBS and glass powder concrete has 50% higher CO2 emissions compared with GGBS concrete. Also, among different environmental damages that concrete would be responsible for, damage to human health has the highest impact on the environment. Fly ash and glass powder concrete have also the highest environmental damage to human health even than regular mix. GGBS concrete has the lowest environmental impact compared with other products that can be considered as a great replacement for PC. Due to the concrete demand exist in Canada, all studied by-products and waste can be fully used in the concrete industry.
15. Drivers of lithium-ion batteries recycling industry toward circular economy in industry 4.0
Computers & Industrial Engineering, Volume 179, May 2023, 109157
An exponential demand increase for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has contributed to a looming waste crisis. Circular economy has been increasingly seen to counter this crisis, further scaled-up by operationalizing Industry 4.0 disruptions around the triple bottom line. As a core pillar of circular economy, this study addresses LIB recycling and explores its key drivers. The drivers are identified and evaluated using Delphi study and multi-criteria decision-making methods. The proposed integrated methodological framework is further tested with data involving multiple stakeholders. The findings underscore the most profound causal drivers: institutional incentives supporting LIB recycling, availability of reliable technology, and strengthening coordination among actors in a supply chain using Industry 4.0. Interestingly, the highest-ranking causal drivers of LIB recycling were retrieved not from the existing literature but from the expert pool. The findings also reveal some counterintuitive results, such as practitioners prioritizing environmental factors over economic ones instead of the widespread convention of their preferences toward economic goals. The study thereby offered some helpful policy levers, which when empirically strategized with Industry 4.0 should enable stakeholders.
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