Trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 19-2022 với những nội dung chính như sau:
Về quản lý môi trường
– Dự đoán các tranh cãi về môi trường và phát triển phương pháp luận đánh giá hoạt động môi trường của doanh nghiệp.
– Cường độ carbon của ngành công nghiệp gang thép Nhật Bản: Phân tích các yếu tố từ năm 2000 đến năm 2019.
– Các yếu tố thành công để đổi mới sản phẩm bền vững với môi trường.
– Nâng cao hiệu quả sử dụng năng lượng thông qua chính sách trái phiếu xanh: Phát hành chứng khoán thế chấp xanh cho nhiều gia đình.
– Sự phát triển phối hợp giữa tài chính xanh và hoạt động môi trường ở Trung Quốc: Sự khác biệt về không gian-thời gian và các yếu tố thúc đẩy.
– Các chính sách khí hậu có thể dẫn đến biến đổi hữu hình như thế nào: Bằng chứng từ 11 quốc gia có thu nhập thấp và trung bình thấp hơn.
– Các chính sách thí điểm của thành phố các-bon thấp có thể cải thiện đáng kể hiệu quả phát thải các-bon không? Bằng chứng thực nghiệm từ Trung Quốc.
– Khám phá vai trò của tiêu thụ năng lượng sinh khối, dấu chân sinh thái thông qua FDI và đổi mới công nghệ trong các nền kinh tế B&R: Phương pháp tiếp cận phương trình đồng thời.
– Năng lượng tái tạo và tăng trưởng kinh tế: Một cách tiếp cận chuyển đổi Markov.
Về môi trường đô thị
– Tăng cường phân hủy sinh học Chlorpyrifos nhờ Bacillus cereus CP6 và Klebsiella pneumoniae CP19 từ nước thải đô thị.
– Các thành phố toàn cầu có đồng nhất với nhau không? Đánh giá hình thái đô thị và tác động của đảo nhiệt.
– Bất đồng quan hệ giữa hình thái đô thị và khả năng tiếp cận đô thị để chống chịu với các hiện tượng thời tiết và khí hậu khắc nghiệt.
– Đánh giá các phương pháp mô hình hóa, đánh giá và cải thiện đa quy mô của môi trường nhiệt và gió đô thị.
– Ảnh hưởng của sự thay đổi không gian của bề mặt không thấm nước đến môi trường nhiệt đô thị: Một trường hợp của khu đô thị trung tâm Hoài An.
– Khám phá tác động của việc tỏa nhiệt của các phương tiện giao thông đối với việc giảm thiểu nhiệt đô thị ở Sendai, Nhật Bản bằng mô hình WRF tích hợp với LCZ đô thị.
– Đánh giá kinh tế xã hội và sinh thái của các công viên đô thị – Một phương pháp luận tích hợp và khớp nối các thành phần đa dạng.
– Đánh giá tác động của quá trình đô thị hóa đối với sự thoát hơi nước ở đô thị và các thành phần của nó bằng cách sử dụng mô hình cân bằng năng lượng bốn nguồn mới.
– Khung quản lý và thiết kế trồng cây thích ứng để thích ứng và giảm thiểu biến đổi khí hậu đô thị.
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
– Đặc điểm ô nhiễm và tối ưu hóa tường ngăn thẳng đứng tại một khu công nghiệp bị ô nhiễm ở Trung Quốc.
– Ô nhiễm kim loại nặng trong đất của các di sản công nghiệp ở Trung Quốc và đánh giá rủi ro sức khỏe.
– Một công nghệ trực tuyến để giám sát hiệu quả các chất hạt vô cơ có thể ngưng tụ được thải ra từ các nhà máy công nghiệp.
– Điện cực kim cương pha tạp boron khử các chất alkyl chuỗi ngắn và dài và polyfluorinated trong nước thải công nghiệp thực sự.
– Ảnh hưởng của tỷ lệ mol Si / Al đến đặc tính cường độ của geopolymer có nguồn gốc từ các chất thải công nghiệp khác nhau: Đánh giá hiện trạng.
– Xác định giá trị của lignin thải công nghiệp thông qua nhiệt phân với sự có mặt của các chất phụ gia: Hình thành, đặc tính và ứng dụng của nhiên liệu có giá trị dầu sinh học và than hoạt tính.
– Dòng vi tảo xanh Chlorella vulgaris phân lập từ nước thải công nghiệp có khả năng xử lý.
– Đặc trưng cho nồng độ trên mặt đất của các chất hữu cơ và vô cơ có hại thải ra trong các vụ cháy công nghiệp lớn, và các tác động đối với sức khỏe con người.
– Kết hợp bùn từ nhà máy xử lý nước thải của một xưởng giặt là công nghiệp vào gốm sứ đất sét nặng.
Dưới đây là tên và phần tóm tắt của các nghiên cứu bằng tiếng Anh:
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. Prediction of environmental controversies and development of a corporate environmental performance rating methodology
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 344, 10 April 2022, 130979
Institutional investors seek to make environmentally sustainable investments using environment, social, governance (ESG) ratings. Current ESG ratings have limited validity because they are based on idiosyncratic scores derived using subjective, discretionary methodologies. We discuss a new direction for developing corporate environmental performance (CEP) ratings and propose a solution to the limited validity problem by anchoring such ratings in environmental controversies. The study uses a novel machine learning approach to make the ratings more comprehensive and transparent, based on a set of algorithmic approaches that handle nonlinearity when aggregating ESG indicators. This approach minimizes the rater subjectivity and preferences inherent in traditional ESG indicators. The findings indicate that controversies as proxies for non-compliance with environmental responsibilities can be predicted well. We conclude that environmental performance ratings developed using our machine learning framework offer predictive validity consistent with institutional investors’ demand for socially responsible investment screening.
2. Making energy green – A method for quantifying the ecosystem maintenance energy and the green energy return on energy invested
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 344, 10 April 2022, 131037
Limiting the impact of human use of energy on the environment is necessary to maintain the Earth’s ecosystems such that they can continue to provide the ecosystem services on which humans and all other living organisms depend. Because the methods available to limit the impact on the environment of energy production and use require energy, energy used for this purpose—termed ecosystem maintenance energy (ESME)—reduces the net energy available. A capacity to estimate the energy that can be produced while sustaining ecosystem services, termed green energy, is critical to future energy use. This paper sets out a method to determine ESME by assigning energy consumption to the processes needed to remove the source of the impact on the ecosystem that results from the energy system lifecycle. We illustrate the method by the use of a case study based on a concentrated solar power plant (CSP) with natural gas back up. Green energy production is assessed in terms of the green energy return on energy invested, EROIg. CSP ecosystem impact is determined via a lifecycle assessment of the plant’s operations for varying degrees of natural gas back-up. ESME is then determined by calculating the energy consumption of the impact source removal (ISR) process needed to remove the ecosystem impact. We show that, although the CSP plant produces increasing amounts of net energy with increasing natural gas back-up, the capacity to produce net green energy reduces with increasing natural gas back-up once ESME is included. For the CSP plant examined, EROI increases, while EROIg decreases for increasing use of natural gas. This indicates the large impact of ESME on the plant’s energy return and the necessity of its inclusion in energy assessments.
3. Carbon intensity of the Japanese Iron and steel Industry: Analysis of factors from 2000 to 2019
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 345, 15 April 2022, 130920
In this study, the factors influencing the carbon intensity (tCO2/t crude steel) transition in the Japanese iron and steel industry from FY2000 to FY2019 were empirically evaluated. The results revealed that the upper processes (i.e., the hot-metal ratio, waste plastic, and waste tires), steel product mix, capacity factor, and linear time trend variable explain the actual carbon intensity trajectory reported for the years from FY2000 to FY2019. The upper process and capacity factor were found to be major contributors to the inter-annual fluctuations of carbon intensity. The coefficient of the capacity factor index (FY2005 = 100) was estimated to be −0.23% per 1 percentage point of the capacity factor, indicating that a 1% decrease in the capacity factor resulted in a 0.23% deterioration in the carbon intensity. The coefficient of the time trend variable was estimated to be −0.0034 tCO2/t crude steel/y, which is equivalent to a 0.2%/y average improvement in carbon intensity over the period from FY2000 to FY2019. Because the observed improvement rate of carbon intensity was relatively small, a large-scale diffusion of innovative steelmaking processes such as hydrogen direct reduction will be required to achieve the goal of net zero emissions by 2050.
4. Spatiotemporal variation characteristics of ecosystem health and its driving mechanism in the mountains of southwest China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 345, 15 April 2022, 131138
A deeper understanding of the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of ecosystem health and its driving mechanism are important for ecosystem management and restoration. Under the complex environment in the southwestern mountainous area of China, various natural and anthropogenic factors interact with each other, complicating the mechanism driving ecosystem health. Quantitatively exploring the interaction among driving factors is challengeable but worthwhile. Based on the pressure–state–response (PSR) framework, the ecosystem health value of the study area was computed for the years of 2000 and 2018 at the grid scale. A geographical detector model was adopted to explore the factors driving ecosystem health change. We found that, compared to the year of 2000, there was an improvement in ecosystem health in 2018. The most significant improvement occurred in ample rural areas scattered in remote mountain areas. Nevertheless, there were grids experiencing ecosystem health deterioration. The appearance of a “deterioration ring” surrounding the metropolis region was the typical representative. Among the 10 selected driving factors, in-migrant population, out-migrant population, population density, elevation, and slope were found to be the most important factors. There were obvious impact thresholds of elevation, slope, distance to towns and distance to road on ecosystem health change. The out-migrant population in rural areas strongly promoted the local ecosystem health improvement by alleviating the pressure of human activity. In contrast, the in-migrant population presented the opposite effects on ecosystem health. All driving factors produced enhanced effects on the ecosystem health change through interaction effects. The largest enhanced effects occurred between the migrant population (in- and out-migrant) and the other eight driving factors. Our findings emphasize the key role of migrant population in ecosystem health change, which has not been considered in previous studies.
5. Advancing energy efficiency through green bond policy: Multifamily green mortgage backed securities issuanceJournal of Cleaner Production, Volume 345, 15 April 2022, 131019
Diffusion of new technology, such as green bond policies, is impacted by inefficiencies and frictions as the market navigates adoption. Using data from Fannie Mae multifamily green mortgage backed security issuances, we identify possible disconnects between pricing and benefits, as well as adoption trends. Evidence indicates that loans on properties backed by green bonds that incentivize energy efficiency in multifamily buildings receive lower interest rates, lower debt service coverage ratios, and higher leverage ratios than their “brown” counterparts. Some of these findings represent stated program benefits, yet others do not. Additionally, some benefits are observed accruing to properties which are not participating in a green MBS program, despite already qualifying for participation. Supporting evidence points to drivers of adoption and program refinements which could aid in policy maximization. Our results carry implications for both existing green bond programs as well as the diffusion of green bond policy into the broader capital markets.
6. Success factors for environmentally sustainable product innovation: An updated review
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 345, 15 April 2022, 131039
Considering environmentally sustainable product innovation, studies point to developing green products as a critical element of environmentally sustainable success and business performance. Especially in recent years, green product innovation has been the focus of numerous studies, which has made the literature on the subject evolve and expand significantly. In this scenario, we updated a widely cited systematic literature review published in the Journal of Cleaner Production in 2014 (de Medeiros et al., 2014). The study was carried out by observing the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) review protocol. As for the success factors, the advancement of the theoretical body in the area made it possible to expand and complement the established labels. The factors resulting from this literature update are: (i) political-legal environment favorable to green innovation; (ii) socio-cultural environment favorable to green innovation; (iii) capacities and learning oriented towards green innovation; (iv) interfunctional and inter-organizational collaboration; and (v) resources and technological domain. Additionally, we identified that a set of interconnected variables constitutes the antecedent system to produce behavior patterns that lead to successful green products innovation. For example, markets characterized by environmental regulations and pressure from suppliers and consumers for green practices accelerate companies towards a strategic organization of eco-innovation capabilities. In addition, environmental certification systems and government incentives facilitate the reorganization of resources to innovate in an environmentally sustainable way. Finally, we have organized a subsection with suggestions regarding the use of theories, methods, and contexts for future research on the topic.
7. Make green, live clean! Linking adaptive capability and environmental behavior with financial performance through corporate sustainability performance
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 346, 20 April 2022, 131156
Lying on the dynamic capabilities perspective, organizational citizenship behavior for the environment and literature on green environmental management and performance as theoretical underpinnings, this study examines how adaptive capability and environmental behavior affect corporate sustainability performance and financial performance. To this aim, it relies on the use of the partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach to analyze the data collected from 311 ISO 14001 certified firms in Saudi Arabia. The empirical analysis of the data reveals that, as it was hypothesized, both adaptive capability and environmental behavior have a positive and significant effect on corporate sustainability performance as well as on financial performance. In addition, the results demonstrate that corporate sustainability performance partially mediates the links between the two antecedent (exogenous) constructs and the endogenous construct (financial performance). This study may provide useful implications for cleaner production scholars and practitioners, that may enable them to better grasp the importance of training their employees in competencies such as adaptation and change detection and management, as well as to develop a pro-environmental behavior.
8. Coordinated development between green finance and environmental performance in China: The spatial-temporal difference and driving factors
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 346, 20 April 2022, 131150
The coordination relationship and the balance of development between green finance and environmental performance are crucial to guaranteeing sustainable development under circumstances of economic transition. The current paper demonstrates the construction of index systems pertaining to green finance and environmental performance. Based on a panel dataset of 30 Chinese provinces from 2008 to 2019, the coupling coordination degree model, spatial autocorrelation model, and spatial panel model are used to analyze the spatial-temporal characteristics and driving factors of the coordinated development of green finance and environmental performance across the country. The results show that, first, an overall upward trend in the green finance index appeared, with most high-value areas located in the eastern regions. In terms of environmental performance, the number of provinces with efficient environmental performance values rose from 3 to 17. These provinces were mainly distributed in the eastern and central regions. Second, the coupled coordination of green finance and environmental performance rose from mild incoordination to primary coordination during the study period, with marked spatial autocorrelation and a downward trend from east to west. Finally, industrial structure, economic development level, and environmental regulations were found to positively impact the coordinated development of green finance and environmental performance, while population density exerted an inhibiting effect on it. These effects differ across regions. The paper concludes with several policy implications, offered to guide the coordinated development of green finance and environmental performance.
9. How climate policies can translate to tangible change: Evidence from eleven low- and lower-middle income countries
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 346, 20 April 2022, 131014
Formally adopting climate change mitigation policies does not necessarily translate to tangible change on the ground. Here, we analyse 31 semi-structured interviews with climate policy government officials and consultants from 11 low-income and lower-middle income countries (LMICs) as well as the respective climate policy context, and find high average degrees of perceived discrepancies between formally adopted climate change mitigation policies and their actual implementation. Our results suggest that for our LMIC sample, both the global political process to limit climate change and domestic environmental threats have been key to drive the formal adoption of climate change mitigation policies, but have had limited effect on implementation. By contrast, momentum for implementation of climate change mitigation initiatives and projects on the ground emerges where climate policies are firmly embedded within economic and social development policies, the economy and society are comparably well-positioned to embrace the associated change, and where they have been governed by cross-ministerial institutions capable of implementing wider climate-compatible development pathways. Thus, to help translate climate policy into action, national LMIC governments and the international community need to find context-specific ways to successfully integrate climate with economic and social development policies, identify and build on feasible opportunities and competitive advantages through which the local economy can benefit from green growth, build adequate social capital, and actively create institutional spaces and processes for well-equipped and meaningful cross-ministerial co-benefit governance. The importance of unlocking co-benefits for implementing climate policies underlines both the urgency with which the international community needs to increase finance for LMICs for climate change mitigation, as well as the associated development opportunities.
10. Can low-carbon city pilot policies significantly improve carbon emission efficiency? Empirical evidence from China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 346, 20 April 2022, 131131
This study estimates the effect of low-carbon city (LCC) pilot policies on carbon emission efficiency (CO2E) measured by Slacks-based measure (SBM) on panel data of 208 cities from 2003 to 2016 through the Difference in differences (DID) model with propensity score matching (PSM) method. The results show that the overall LCC pilot policy can significantly improve the CO2E of the pilots by 6.6%, and the policy effect of the second batch pilots is significant while that of the first batch is insignificant. In addition, the LCC pilot policy has great regional heterogeneity. The policy effects of first and second-tier cities, municipalities, and provincial capital cities are negative, while those of third-tier cities and below are positive. The LCC pilot policy benefits CO2E in eastern, northeastern, and central China while slightly hindering CO2E in western China. The LCC policy has a better carbon efficiency improvement effect in resource-based cities, especially in maturing cities. In conclusion, the LCC policies have achieved certain results and should be implemented continuously. However, each city should formulate suitable low-carbon plans based on its own economic, political, geographic, and resource characteristics and establish a target accountability system for controlling greenhouse gas emissions.
11. An empirical analysis on regional natural gas market of China from a spatial pattern and social network perspective
Energy, Volume 244, Part A, 1 April 2022, 122598
Coordinating the relationship between the national pipeline network company and the provincial natural gas company is the most crucial contradiction in China’s natural gas market reform. This paper innovatively incorporates the comprehensive evaluation method, modified spatial gravity model, and social network analysis method to investigate the regional natural gas market to solve this dilemma. The result of the case study is as follows. (1) The development of the natural gas market in China’s provinces is uneven, among which resourceful provinces and eastern provinces are relatively strong. (2) The densely connected areas of the natural gas market are mainly concentrated in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Yangtze-River-Delta region, and the Sichuan-Chongqing region. (3) Our work can clarify the node attributes and different efficacy of provinces. The core provinces all belong to the net spillover block, and they are located at key positions and roles in the obtained spatial correlation network. (4) Market participants, commodity diversification and openness are the prominent factors influencing the proposed spatial correlation network. This paper’s major achievement is the reasonable division of five regional natural gas markets. The conclusion can help policymakers clarify the overall natural gas market spatial pattern and provinces’ market potential and functions.
12. Energy technology of conservation versus substitution and energy intensity in China
Energy, Volume 244, Part A, 1 April 2022, 122695
A major challenge for sustainable development is providing adequate energy services while mitigating adverse environmental effects, which unquestionably requires a reduction in the energy consumed per unit of real GDP (i.e. energy intensity) and novel energy technologies. However, our knowledge of how energy technologies influence energy intensity is incomplete. This paper thus empirically investigates the effects of energy technologies on energy intensity by dividing them into energy-conservation and energy-substitution technologies. Additionally, we classify energy technologies according to their executors, as having two purposes. Using a China’s provincial dataset over 2000–2018, we find that energy-conservation technology plays a more important role in decreasing energy intensity compared to energy-substitution technology. In addition, from the purposes of these energy technologies, the energy technologies coming from utility-type enterprises exert the most significant effect on energy intensity reduction. Since the effect of energy technologies on energy intensity may be related to technology absorptive ability, an additional analysis based on the dynamic panel threshold model indicates that technology absorptive ability shows an important effect on energy intensity.
13. Exploring the role of biomass energy consumption, ecological footprint through FDI and technological innovation in B&R economies: A simultaneous equation approach
Energy, Volume 244, Part A, 1 April 2022, 122703
Foreign direct investment can be a way to promote modern energy-efficient technology in Belt & Road countries, and this aspect has yet to be explored. Therefore, we set three simultaneous equations to determine the role of foreign direct investment inflow, technological innovations, natural resources, population density on biomass energy consumption, and ecological footprint. We applied a novel panel algorithm, cross-sectionally augmented Autoregressive Distributed Lags, and Driscoll & Kraay methods for 52 Belt & Road panel countries from 1992 to 2017, which provides a more robust analysis by controlling spatial dependency and heterogeneity. The empirical results depict that biomass energy consumption improves the environment of the Belt & Road region, as ecological footprint and biomass energy consumption yielded a negative relationship. However, FDI supports the ‘Pollution Haven’ hypothesis for the Belt & Road economies. The results further infer that the ecological footprint can be lowered in the economies by technological advancement. From the policy perspective, our findings suggest that policymakers in Belt & Road economies should devise comprehensive foreign investment and modern biomass energy policies aiming at cleaner industrial practices that ensure environmental sustainability.
14. Analyzing energy innovation-emissions nexus in China: A novel dynamic simulation method
Energy, Volume 244, Part B, 1 April 2022, 123010
Rising climate change and global warming issues highlight the potential role of research and development in the energy sector. By considering this critical role, the current study outlines the impact of energy innovation on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for China. For this, the study produces empirical outputs by conducting a newly developed, dynamic autoregressive distributed lag simulation method. The study discloses robust findings that point out a mitigating effect of energy innovation on carbon dioxide emissions and validate the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis. Empirical results highlight the significant role of energy innovation to decrease environmental pollution and inspire policymakers to increase the spending of the public budget on energy research development and demonstration as well as supporting innovative attempts and enterprises. On the other hand, empirical findings do not provide concrete evidence to support the pollution haven hypothesis in China.
15. Renewable energy and economic growth: A Markov-switching approach
Energy, Volume 244, Part B, 1 April 2022, 123089
This paper examines the dynamic causal relationship between renewable energy prices and economic growth in the cases of Norway, New Zealand, and two Canadian provinces. A Markov-switching vector autoregression (MS-VAR) model is used with model parameters being governed by a hidden Markov chain, allowing the causal relationship to vary amongst different states of the economy. A unidirectional causal link, running from economic growth to renewable energy is found in the case of New Zealand, Alberta, and Ontario. The causality emerges in the cases of New Zealand and Ontario, during periods of high economic growth, whilst it materializes in the cases of Alberta during periods of low economic growth. Our empirical results document the existence of a time-dependent causal relationship between renewable-energy prices and economic growth.
16. Do provincial energy policies and energy intensity targets help reduce CO2 emissions? Evidence from China
Energy, Volume 245, 15 April 2022, 123275
The effects of Chinese local governments’ energy policies and top-down target management on CO2 emissions have received little attention to date. The current study uses 18 years of panel data from Chinese provinces to empirically investigate the impacts of provincial circular economy development policies, energy saving policies, comprehensive resource utilization policies, and energy intensity targets set by the central government on CO2 emissions. The results indicate that provincial circular economy development policies and energy intensity targets are conducive to reducing CO2 emissions, while provincial energy saving policies and comprehensive resource utilization policies have no significant impact. The findings confirm the effectiveness of China’s target management tools in addressing climate change, and provide guidance for local governments on actively implementing local policies to promote local CO2 emission reduction.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Enhanced Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos by Bacillus cereus CP6 and Klebsiella pneumoniae CP19 from municipal waste water
Environmental Research, Volume 205, 1 April 2022, 112438
Chlorpyrifos is one of the widely used pesticides induced genotoxicity, and neurotoxicity to mammals, fishes and other non-target organisms. In the current investigation pesticide degrading strains Bacillus cereus CP6 and Klebsiella pneumoniae CP19 were isolated from the municipal soil sediment sample and characterized based on biochemical, physiological, morphological characters and 16S rDNA sequencing. The strains B. cereus CP6 and K. pneumoniae CP19 survived and degraded more than 70% chlorpyrifos at 200–300 mg/L initial concentrations. K. pneumoniae CP19 was capable of degrading chlorpyrifos rapidly than B. cereus CP6 in submerged fermentation. Moreover, these two isolates have the ability to degrade pesticide in the presence of glucose as the carbon source and biodegradation potential was optimum at neutral pH. B. cereus CP6 utilized peptone and degraded pesticide, whereas, beef extract stimulated maximum degradation in the case of K. pneumoniae CP19. Moreover, bacterial consortium formulated using CP6 and CP19 strains degraded 93.4 ± 2.8% chlorpyrifos in liquid culture. The microbial consortium inoculated soil degraded 82.3 ± 1.3% within 14 days and maximum degradation (94.5 ± 3.3%) was achieved after 16 days. The findings revealed the potential of biocatalyst for the biodegradation of chlorpyrifos contaminated water.
2. Are global cities homogenizing? An assessment of urban form and heat island implications
Cities, Available online 28 April 2022, 103705
The rapid growth of cities—along with the increasing connectedness of the world’s social, economic, and political systems—has been hypothesized to generate a homogenization of urban form and associated environmental impacts. These hypotheses, however, have rarely been tested. Employing satellite imagery of 150 of the most populous cities in China, India, and the United States, we examine how the area and configuration of built-up land within cities has changed between 1995 and 2015 and assess impacts on the urban heat island effect. We find similar urban form trends across the three countries. The strongest evidence of homogenization is in the connectivity of urban form, while the shape of cities is linked to higher daytime surface urban heat island (SUHI) intensity. In the context of this and other research, we postulate that the identified urban form trends may lead to the homogenization of the biotic and abiotic environment of cities. Homogenization presents an opportunity for cities to learn from each other as they encounter similar ecological outcomes driven, in part, by their increasingly similar urban form.
3. Disentangling relations between urban form and urban accessibility for resilience to extreme weather and climate events
Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 220, April 2022, 104352
The rapid urbanization progress has placed large populations and expensive civil infrastructure at locations exposed to climatic and weather-related hazards (e.g., wind storms and floods), which demands informed and effective planning approaches that help human communities adapt to these adverse events. Emerging research highlights the importance of maintaining sufficient and equitable access to facilities that provide essential resources (e.g., gas and food) and services (e.g., healthcare and banking) and support city residents’ daily activities to avoid exacerbated event impacts. Extant studies suggest that urban forms, including the spatial arrangement of facilities, influence place accessibility. However, these studies are mostly semantic and ontological without quantitative investigations into their dynamic interactions under the impact of extreme (weather and climate) events (EEs). Therefore, we propose to evaluate the relations between urban form characteristics (i.e., compacity, polycentricity, and mixed land use) and urban accessibility with simulations. We used Cellular Automata (CA) to simulate four land-use change scenarios for the City of Tallahassee in the United States, and calculated the resource/service-seeking travel paths for “residents” living in the four “simulated cities” characterized by different urban form characteristics across three scenarios, i.e., business-as-usual (BAU), limited resource provision (LRP), and built environment disruption (BED) scenarios. We measured accessibility for a simulated city as the distribution (i.e., median values and cumulative distribution functions) of the calculated travel path lengths for that city. The simulation results indicate that “residents” living in cities with mixed land use and decentralized population and commercial centers are associated with higher-level accessibilities and experience fewer perturbations during EE. The research findings could inform future land use and landscape planning practices and policies that help hazard-prone communities adapt to recurring EEs and thus enhance community resilience.
4. Identifying urban ventilation corridors through quantitative analysis of ventilation potential and wind characteristics
Building and Environment, Volume 214, 15 April 2022, 108943
Urban heat islands (UHIs) are mainly caused by mismanaged urban development. Urban ventilation corridors (UVCs) can effectively reduce UHIs. Hangzhou, a large, dense city in eastern China, is one of the nation’s hottest cities and must urgently improve its ventilation. In this study, a newly developed method combining land surface temperature retrieval, GIS spatial analysis, and weather data was employed to design city-level UVCs. The functional space and compensation space of UVCs are identified based on the LandsatETM8 image data inversion of surface temperature. The contribution of affect factors, such as building density, building height, green land area, waterbody, roads, and urban terrain, to the urban ventilation potential is calculated using AHP and GIS. Areas with tremendous ventilation potential were identified as possible ventilation corridors by using an evaluation model and considering wind characteristics. Fifty-four high-temperature zones and 48 low-temperature zones were identified as functional and compensative spaces in Hangzhou, respectively. On the urban scale, green space (area >500ha), water bodies (area >300ha or width >100 m), and roads (width >50 m) were considered to be the factors that have the greatest impact on urban ventilation potential. The LCP method was used to verify the accuracy and rationality of the method proposed in this study to determine the city-scale UVC. UVC planning schemes and construction measures were proposed to provide rich information and a reference basis for the new general land and space planning of Hangzhou. However, to improve the accuracy of the potential ventilation results, the urban underlying surface criteria should be re-evaluated more comprehensively.
5. Values and Beliefs About Urban Forests From Diverse Urban Contexts And Populations in the Greater Toronto Area
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Available online 30 April 2022, 127589
Cities around the world are diverse. People’s perceptions of urban forests may vary according to urban contexts and people’s diverse identities. A better understanding of these diverse perceptions is critical to support stewardship initiatives, inform urban tree decisions, and guide community engagement, among other key management and governance processes in urban forestry. This study examines the values and beliefs that diverse people living in a variety of urban contexts associate with urban trees. Using an urban gradient approach, 2,009 responses were collected through an online panel survey conducted in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) to understand variations in values and beliefs of urban forests across municipal types (inner core, suburban, peri-urban, and regional cities). The GTA has an ethnoculturally diverse population, allowing us to also explore perceptions held by people with various identities. The study uses analytical techniques, such as means differences and linear regression models, to segment the diverse meanings people attribute to urban trees by municipal types and people’s identities. The results show that, while people value the urban forest very highly, people’s value orientations vary depending on their context and identities. For example, respondents who speak European or South Asian languages tend to hold value orientations related to cultural, social, and identity issues. Respondents living in inner municipal types tend to hold values related to identity issues, whereas respondents living in outer municipal types and regional cities tend to hold values related to natural issues. The results also show that people’s beliefs about urban forests are primarily positive. Urban forests managers and stewardship initiatives should recognize the diverse set of values and beliefs that people associate with urban forests, incorporating these perceptions into policy and programs. Additionally, since specific value and belief orientations may depend on personal identity and urban contexts, tailored messaging may also help generate support for policy or stewardship initiatives across different communities and in varied urban contexts.
6. Delimiting the urban growth boundary for sustainable development with a pareto front degradation searching strategy based optimization model
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 345, 15 April 2022, 131191
Optimal allocation of newly-added urban land is significant to delimit the urban growth boundary (UGB) for territorial spatial planning, and it is also the basic guarantee to promote the sustainable development of cities. Exploring a model to generate optimal allocation pattern has become one of the key technologies in UGB delineation. In this study, a fast land-use assignment model (FLAM) was proposed adopting Pareto front degradation searching strategy. In this model, urban lands to be allocated were defined as agents, and a heuristic landscape indicator was creatively induced for assigning agents to optimal positions. They first selected positions with the highest urban growth suitability, then some of them with lower suitability gradually moved from original positions to those around urban patches with maximum compactness, which was measured with the area of urban patch and the number of grids allowed for urban growth within the corresponding minimal outer rectangle. Optimal solution could be obtained until all the agents were assigned under the condition of maximum utility both in suitability and compactness. This searching and updating strategy actually can make optimal solutions always along the Pareto front. Taking Guangzhou metropolitan area in China as an example, FLAM was performed and validated with the following aspects: the sensitivity of model’s parameters, response to planning demands, and optimization efficiency. Compared with cellular automata (CA) and ant colony optimization (ACO), FLAM has better performance on urban land allocation. Results show that FLAM can obtain reasonable scenarios with the advantages of few model parameters, fasting evolution speed and strong scalability, which can be well applied to support UGB delimitation.
7. A review of multi-scale modelling, assessment, and improvement methods of the urban thermal and wind environment
Building and Environment, Volume 213, 1 April 2022, 108860
The urban thermal and wind environment (UTWE) has become a major concern in urban planning design. Consideration of the UTWE involves steps of modelling, assessment, and improvement on multiple scales. However, the method specifications of each step on different scales are unclear, and a comprehensive review of relevant studies is thus required. On this basis, the modelling, assessment, and improvement methods of the UTWE are comprehensively reviewed according to their applicable scales. The review indicates that the scale is systematically considered by studies of the UTWE modelling and improvement, but not by studies of UTWE assessment. On the meso-scale, the UTWE of plot units are usually evaluated in isolation and the interactions among them are neglected. Studies of the UTWE improvement cover urban morphology, urban green and blue infrastructure, and urban materials, but some of their conclusions contradict each other. Current UTWE assessments cannot directly guide the selection of proper improvement strategies. In the future, studies of the UTWE improvement may be based on urban typologies such as the Local Climate Zone, and the data-driven approaches provide an opportunity to link the results of UTWE assessment and the corresponding improvement strategies.
8. Influence of spatiotemporal changes of impervious surface on the urban thermal environment: A case of Huai’an central urban area
Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 79, April 2022, 103710
Urban heat island effect created by urbanization is to be one of the most worrisome urban environment issues, and impervious surface (IS) is the main driving factor of the urban heat island effect. Therefore, it is nesscessy to analyze the impact of IS on urban thermal environment from multiple perspectives. Using Landsat images from 2000 to 2020, we explored the spatiotemporal changes of IS area and urban heat islands, then investigated the impact of IS on LST with regression analysis, bivariate spatial autocorrelation, and deviation degree and contribution degree in Huai’an city. The results showed that (1) IS area in Huai’an CUA has increased dramatically from 2000 to 2020, moving towards the east and south, a net increase of 164.26 km2; (2) LST values were linearly positively correlated with IS abundance (ISA%), 10 increased in ISA% resulted an increase of 0.08 to 0.35 °C in LST, when ISA% is greater than 50%, the influence weakened; (3) IS had a significant positive spatial correlation with LST, the High-High type agglomeration area continued to expand and first agglomerated and then dispersed; (4) The deviation degree of LST in IS expansion area was less than that of original IS area, but IS expansion area contributed most to the urban thermal environment due to the vast region covered. The findings attribute a better understanding of the impact of impervious surface on urban thermal environment and should be helpful for city planners.
9. Exploring the impacts of heat release of vehicles on urban heat mitigation in Sendai, Japan using WRF model integrated with urban LCZ
Sustainable Cities and Society, Available online 30 April 2022, 103922
Studies have been conducted globally on urban heat countermeasures utilizing Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical modeling system. Yet, the effects of vehicle heat (VH) on near-surface air temperature in Japanese cities were not clarified. In this study, the WRF Building Effect Parameterization and Building Energy Model (BEP-BEM) coupled with local climate zones (LCZs) was adopted for simulating the influences of VH on the urban climate over Sendai, Japan. To do so, we proposed a novel method to estimate the hourly VH for LCZs via open-source data. Integrating VH and specific urban canopy parameters (UCPs) into BEP-BEM, the climate model was established and then validated with the observed data. Based on that, effects of various urban heat countermeasures were analyzed at a high spatial resolution. It was found that eliminating the vehicle heat contributes up to 0.12°C to urban heat mitigation, as the most effective countermeasures for the compact areas of city center. This study provided a feasible and reliable workflow to quantitatively evaluate urban heat mitigation strategies at high spatial resolution, specifically for reducing VH in Japanese cities, that can support related urban planners and decision makers for implementing targeted urban heat mitigation strategies.
10. Socio-ecological and economic evaluation of urban parks – A methodology integrating and articulating diverse components
Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, Available online 27 April 2022, 100512
Urban parks have a fundamental role and an essential function for urban populations, both in terms of access to nature and the role they play in the quality of life. Thus, it is key to evaluate and monitor these spaces to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the offer. The literature and studies developed on this issue suggest a diverse range of methodologies for the evaluation of these spaces. However, most of them focus on one or two aspects of their contribution to sustainability and/or just a specific space.
This partial approach does not allow the manager to have a holistic view, nor to compare the various urban recreation spaces. The methodology proposed here aims to overcome these limitations. It targets not only to accomplish a holistic approach allowing to integrate the three dimensions of sustainability – ecological, economic and social – but also assure to be able to be replicable and applicable to various contexts.
In addition to the possibility of evaluating a specific park, it has the advantage for allowing the comparison between different parks. It thus constitutes a valuable tool not only for the monitoring of these spaces in support of management strategies but simultaneously the comparison of different urban parks.
The paper presents a methodological approach and tool helping managers to assess urban parks with different characteristics, allowing their comparison and identification of key elements for the successful planning of large parks in an urban environment. This is typically the bases promoting a multifunctional perspective on planning and management, that can bring more value to urban parks.Using this tool, managers are able to compare the performance of different parks and to test alternative management models in order to provide spaces that bring people closer to nature and enhance the well-being of the urban population.
11. Mobility as a response to environmental hazards in the urban context: A new perspective on mobility and inequality
Travel Behaviour and Society, Volume 27, April 2022, Pages 192-203
In view of the increasing occurrence of urban environmental hazards which can threaten our quality of life and health outcomes, how citizens react to adverse environmental impacts is of great concern. Mobility, as an important part of urban everyday life, is a key concept in understanding individuals’ experience in cities and the society; however, this notion has long been understudied with regard to avoiding the harmful effects of environmental hazards. By highlighting the research perspective of averting behavior, we conceptualize mobility as a response (MaaR) to environmental hazards to inform a new interdisciplinary dialogue for transportation, urban planning, and environmental health research. We review a variety of literature in environmental hazards, (im)mobility, and inequality and reveal the challenges posed by MaaR. MaaR would provide empirical evidence on whether, how, and to what extent the effects and social costs of environmental hazards are underestimated and existing environmental inequality are exacerbated. This article puts forward that MaaR is a promising analytical framework through which we can enrich our knowledge on the person-environment relationships.
12. Factors influencing peri-urban growth: Empirical evidence from the Dhaka and Brisbane regions
Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment, Volume 26, April 2022, 100762
Albeit, urban encroachment to peri-urban areas is a global phenomenon, dimensions of such peri-urban growth vary depending on the context. There little evidence exists in the literature on the main factors effecting such variation. This study aims to explore the main factors influencing peri-urban growth in developing and developed country contexts. The paper investigates the influencing factors from the following four distinctive lenses: (a) Physical growth; (b) Socioeconomic status; (c) Climate change impacts; and; (d) Policy and governance. The methodological steps of the investigation include demarcating peri-urban boundaries with night-time light data, and conducting change analysis with Landsat data. By taking the Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan area (Bangladesh) and Brisbane and its adjoining local government areas (Australia) as comparative cases, this study explores physical growth patterns in a 30-year period (between 1989 and 2019), along with implications of government policies in regulating these changes. The findings disclose that unique socioeconomic settings of a country exert significant influence on urban growth policy formulation and enforcement. This, in turn, responds to peri-urban growth differently between developing and developed countries. The insights generated from this comparative study informs policymaking, planning and monitoring circles in developing and developed country contexts.
13. Assessing the impact of urbanization on urban evapotranspiration and its components using a novel four-source energy balance model
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Volume 316, 1 April 2022, 108853
Urbanization substantially changes many aspects including the regional hydrological cycle, energy balance, and microclimate. However, the degree to which urbanization alters urban evapotranspiration (ET) and its components (soil evaporation (E), vegetation transpiration (T), impervious surface evaporation (I) and water body evaporation (W)) remains unclear. A significant obstacle is the absence of a multi-source energy balance model for an urban area. To solve this issue, a customized four-source energy balance model for urban areas (FSU model) is proposed that differentiates between urban E, T, W, and I. The performance of the FSU model was verified using the eddy correlation (EC), stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope observations in a mega city: Tianjin, China. Long-term urban ET and its composition changes were reconstructed using the Landsat image during the period of 1986–2021 in Tianjin. Trend analyses demonstrate that urban ET, E, and T exhibit significant decreases of trend, while urban W, sensible heat flux (H), and Bowen ratio (BR) exhibit significant increases in trends with urbanization. Urban ET decreased at a rate of 1.41 mm/yr, corresponding to a ∼ 13% decrease below the long-term mean value of total urban ET during the period 1986–2021. Correlation analyses revealed a declining trend of urban ET, E, and T primarily caused by urban land use changes, while the increasing trends of urban W, H, and BR were mainly due to the urban microclimate changes. The proposed FSU model aids in assessment of the urban heat island (UHI) effect and facilitates scientific water resources management in urban areas. This research improves the in-depth understanding of the impact of urbanization on urban ET and its components.
14. Longing for the Blue Sky: Urban air quality and the individual decision to immigrate
Journal of Asian Economics, Volume 79, April 2022, 101437
Based on China Migrants Dynamic Survey data and the air quality data from China National Environmental Monitoring Centre, we empirically investigated whether immigration decision-making is associated with urban air quality. The empirical results from the Logit model revealed ‘vote by foot’ rule in the immigration decision in China, implying migrants commonly attempt to move to cities with good air quality. We additionally found that among determinants of immigration, air quality was inferior to GDP, industrial structures, wages, and public services. We also observed heterogenous impacts of urban air quality on the individual decision to immigrate by gender, age, education, and migration patterns. Specifically, migrants in female and elderly groups have a stronger desire for good urban air quality, whereas those with high education level have a lower desire for the same. Moreover, urban air pollution decreased the probability of interprovincial migration. Rural migrants were less affected by urban air pollution when immigrating to cities. We finally put forward policy implications to balance labour forces migration and economic development.
15. Adaptive planting design and management framework for urban climate change adaptation and mitigation
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Volume 70, April 2022, 127548
Implementing measures to adapt and mitigate climate change effects in cities has been considered increasingly urgent since the quality of life, health, and well-being of urban residents is threatened by this change. Novel communities of plant species that emerge and thrive in the harsh conditions of cities may represent a promising opportunity to address climate change adaptation and mitigation through the planting design and management of urban green spaces. The objective of this study is to develop an adaptive planting design and management framework. The proposed framework is grounded on previous adaptive approaches and focuses on the opportunities emerging from novel plant communities in urban conditions. The framework comprises three main steps (1 – Climate change assessment, 2 – Plant species database, and 3 – Planting design and management procedure). A proposal on how the framework could be tested was developed for the city of Porto, Portugal. Still, the application of the framework can also be adjusted to other urban contexts, offering a starting point for experimentation and assessment of plants’ adaptation and mitigation capacities through design and management. As lack of knowledge and uncertainty about climate change limits global capacity to implement robust adaptation and mitigation strategies, building knowledge in an adaptive way and context-specific locations will be of paramount interest to tackle climate change in cities.
16. Influence of land cover change on spatio-temporal distribution of urban heat island – a case in Wuhan main urban area
Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 79, April 2022, 103715
In this study, the relationship between land cover (LC) characteristics and urban heat island (UHI) intensity in the main urban area of Wuhan City are investigated. The effects of LC change on green space and land surface temperature (LST) was investigated, along with the relationship among LST, LC, and normalised differential vegetation index (NDVI). The land was divided into five categories, namely, built-up area, agricultural land, water, forest, and bare land. LST was determined using the infrared band image from the same period. The area of built-up areas accounted for only 32.81% in 2007, and it increased to 46.01% in 2020, while agricultural land decreased by 12.14%, which is the primary reason for the increase in built-up areas. The average LST in the study area increased from 25.92℃ to 31.71℃, and the range of LST moved forward to high-temperature range. The high-temperature areas (>32℃) expanded from point distribution to plane distribution and its expansion direction was consistent with the urbanisation direction. The water and forest have the strongest mitigation capacity for UHI and should be protected. Urban managers should avoid the increase of bare land due to the degradation of agricultural land and forest because the increase in LST caused by this type of LC change is obvious. LST was negatively correlated with NDVI, indicating that fewer vegetation resulted in higher LST.
17. Predicting the effect of street environment on residents’ mood states in large urban areas using machine learning and street view images
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 816, 10 April 2022, 151605
Researchers have demonstrated that the built environment is associated with mental health outcomes. However, evidence concerning the effects of street environments on mood in fast-growing Asian cities is scarce. Traditional questionnaires and interview methods are labor intensive and time consuming and pose challenges for accurately and efficiently evaluating the impact of urban-scale street environments on mood.
This study aims to use street view images and machine learning methods to model the impact of street environments on mood states in a large urban area in Guangzhou, China, and to assess the effect of different street view elements on mood.
A total of 199,754 street view images of Guangzhou were captured from Tencent Street View, and street elements were extracted by pyramid scene parsing network. Data on six mood state indicators (motivated, happy, positive-social emotion, focused, relaxed, and depressed) were collected from 1590 participants via an online platform called Assessing the Effects of Street Views on Mood. A machine learning approach was proposed to predict the effects of street environment on mood in large urban areas in Guangzhou. A series of statistical analyses including stepwise regression, ridge regression, and lasso regression were conducted to assess the effects of street view elements on mood.
Streets in urban fringe areas were more likely to produce motivated, happy, relaxed, and focused feelings in residents than those in city center areas. Conversely, areas in the city center, a high-density built environment, were more likely to produce depressive feelings. Street view elements have different effects on the six mood states. “Road” is a robust indicator positively correlated with the “motivated” indicator and negatively correlated with the “depressed” indicator. “Sky” is negatively associated with “positive-social emotion” and “depressed” but positively associated with “motivated”. “Building” is a negative predictor for the “focused” and “happy” indicator but is positively related to the “depressed” indicator, while “vegetation” and “terrain” are the variables most robustly and positively correlated with all positive moods.
Our findings can help urban designers identify crucial areas of the city for optimization, and they have practical implications for urban planners seeking to build urban environments that foster better mental health.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Pollution characteristics and vertical cutoff wall optimization at an industrial contaminated site in China
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Volume 235, 15 April 2022, 113435
Vertical cutoff walls have been widely used in the remediation of contaminated sites. However, determining the best method for evaluating the long-term barrier performance of vertical cutoff walls presents a major difficulty in actual projects. Here, a case study is presented for a typical electroplating, medical, and chemical industrial park in China. Based on the analysis of groundwater pollution characteristics at the site, pollutants included metals (Ni, Al), ammonia nitrogen, and 1,2-dichloroethane. Finite element model simulations of Ni transport at the site showed that a vertical cutoff wall with a thickness of 60 cm and a hydraulic conductivity of 1.0 × 10−8 cm/s could significantly attenuate pollutant transport in the horizontal direction. Compared with other methods such as reducing the hydraulic conductivity or increasing the adsorption retardation factor of the vertical cutoff wall, increasing the thickness was more effective in controlling pollutant transport at the study site. Doubling the thickness would cause the Ni leakage concentration to decrease by more than 98% and the breakthrough time to increase by more than 47 years. It is recommended that the thickness of cutoff walls be maximized to optimize their effects on pollutant transport.
2. Soil heavy metal pollution of industrial legacies in China and health risk assessment
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 816, 10 April 2022, 151632
Rapid urbanization in China has brought about large-scale factory relocation. Severe environmental ecological and human health risks are caused by a large number of contaminated legacies left in the city. To comprehensively review the pollution and assess the health risk of industrial legacies in China, a total of 625 polluted industrial legacies were compiled by document retrieval. Legacies are mainly located in the southwest of China, the North China Plain, Yangtze River Basin, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta with a mean operation time of 35 years, and legacies of chemical manufacturing take the biggest proportion of all sites. Health risk assessments considering the uncertainty of exposure and toxic factors reveal that the soil heavy metal pollution in China is serious, with Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, and As as dominant pollutants. Legacies of chemical manufacturing, ferrous metal processing, non-ferrous metal processing, and mines should be priority controlled for their large number and serious risks. Children are the most vulnerable people with more serious non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, while males are slightly surpassed by females. Insights for better risk management of legacies are provided based on the comprehensive assessment of pollution and human health risk in this study.
3. An online technology for effectively monitoring inorganic condensable particulate matter emitted from industrial plants
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 428, 15 April 2022, 128221
The concentration of condensable particulate matter (CPM) has gradually exceeded that of filterable particulate matter emitted from industrial plants equipped with advanced air pollution control systems. However, there is still no available online technology to measure CPM emissions. Based on the significant linear correlations (R2 > 0.87, p < 3 × 10‐3) between the electrical conductivity (EC) values and ionic mass concentrations of the CPM solutions when the interference of H+ was excluded. We developed an online inorganic CPM monitoring system, including a cooling and condensation unit, pH and EC meters, a self-cleaning unit, and an automatic control unit. The CPM mass concentrations obtained by the developed online monitoring system agree well (mean bias 3.8–20.7%) with those obtained by the offline system according to USEPA Method 202 when used in parallel during real-world studies. Furthermore, individual ion mass concentrations of CPMs can even be retrieved separately with a time resolution of one hour when industrial plants are under steady operating conditions. The newly developed system makes the online monitoring of CPM emissions available and lays a foundation for the control of CPM emitted from industrial sources to further improve air quality.
4. Boron-doped diamond electrodes degrade short- and long-chain per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances in real industrial wastewaters
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 2, April 2022, 107192
Electrochemical oxidation (ECO) with boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode of six legacy perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) present in semiconductor fabrication wastewaters was investigated in single-solutes, multi-solutes, and real wastewater matrices. ECO degradation kinetics decreased as carbon length decreased in single-solute systems. Because heterogeneous catalysis involves PFAS interacting at the electrode surface, the impact of PFAS in solution on altering the potential affinity for PFAS itself on the surface was quantified. The BDD electrode surface wettability, defined by the surface contact angle, increased with longer chain length and diminished with increasing PFAS concentration. PFASs with a sulfonated head group degraded 2–3x faster than their carboxylic counterparts. Industrial wastewaters can have high background organic concentrations and have a large pH range prior to discharge, offering different opportunities to treat for PFAS near the semiconductor manufacturing tool or prior to pH adjustment and discharge to sanitary sewers. Increasing pH (up to 12) decreased the evolution of reactive oxygen species on the electrode surface and therefore decreased removal kinetics compared to pH 3 and 7. The presence of surfactants (tetramethylammonium hydroxide [TMAH] and sodium dodecyl sulfonate [SDS]) in the wastewater significantly reduced the degradation efficiency of ECO. However, compared to single-solute PFAS systems, multi-solute solutions (mixture of 6 PFASs) had higher degradation rates during ECO. In a real wastewater (originated from RO concentrate), PFASs were efficiently removed in ~320 min reaction time. These results demonstrated the promise for ECO to treat PFAS contained in industrial manufacturing processes at both tool level and blended wastewater.
5. Agricultural and industrial waste-derived mesoporous silica nanoparticles: A review on chemical synthesis route
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 2, April 2022, 107322
In recent years, the amount of agricultural and industrial wastes being generated is increasing rapidly. This leads to numerous disposals, governance, and environmental issues. Therefore, the re-utilisation of these wastes into value-added products such as mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) has attracted great attention. MSNs have garnered immense attention in various applications owing to their tuneable pore dimensions, high surface areas, and tailorable structure, suitable for different post-functionalisation. In this review, recent progress on the synthesis of MSNs from waste using a chemical synthesis route is presented. This route offers the possibility to control silica structure, phase, morphology, and sizes by fine tuning the reaction parameters/conditions. The characteristics and applications of the MSNs produced are also analysed to examine the potential of using agricultural and industrial waste as the silica precursor. Although the use of inexpensive waste-derived materials seems promising for both waste reduction and value-added products synthesis, further research is still needed to boost the production of silica especially at a larger scale.
6. Effect of Si/Al molar ratio on the strength behavior of geopolymer derived from various industrial waste: A current state of the art review
Construction and Building Materials, Volume 329, 25 April 2022, 127134
Geopolymer, also termed as alkali-activated material (AAM), is a promising concrete technology having the advantages of low carbon emission and resource reclamation. Intensive studies have verified the feasibility of using waste as an aluminosilicate precursor (AP) to synthesize AAM. However, the inconsistent characteristics of raw materials are an obstacle against its industry scale application. To address this issue, Si/Al molar ratio can serve as a non-dimensional index to standardize raw material and offer a potential solution to quality control of AAM feedstock supply chain. Even though the crucial role that molar ratios will play in the quality control of AAM, studies on the correlation between Si/Al molar ratio and AAM properties are limited. To fill this gap, this paper provided an in-depth review from the perspective of the Si/Al molar ratio and summarized their correlation with properties of various types AAMs, validating the feasibility of using the molar ratio to formulate AAM and to maintain stable performances. Based on these, a three-step strategy that can more effectively convert an ever-broader range of waste material with high variability into normalized AP was proposed, which may serve as a guide regarding waste valorization and AAM quality control.
7. Valorization of industrial waste lignin via pyrolysis in the presence of additives: Formation, characterization, and application of fuel valued bio-oil and activated char
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, Volume 99, Issue 4, April 2022, 100398
The annual production of over 50 million tonnes of industrial waste kraft lignin and scant utilization invites environmental concern. To explore the potential of simultaneously produced bio-oil and modified char (Activated char), lignin from industrial effluents was subjected to pyrolytic degradation at 380 °C using various additives, viz., H3BO3, ZnCl2, and KOH yielding encouraging quantities of bio-oils besides substantial quantities of char. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of gaseous products (by GC-TCD) indicated a mixture of CO, CO2, H2, and methane, with some variation in volumetric composition suggesting potential for gaseous fuel/syngas. Gaseous products obtained in the presence of H3BO3 have the highest methane percentage. The bio-oils obtained in the presence of H3BO3, ZnCl2, KOH, and only pure lignin under otherwise similar conditions were respectively 37%, 21%, 27%, and 11 wt%. In all cases, mainly bio-oils contain phenols, cyclic esters, and carboxylic acids, as indicated by GC-MS analysis. Elemental (C, H, O) Analyses of bio-oils obtained in the presence of (H3BO3, ZnCl2, and KOH) indicated decreasing oxygen content compared to original lignin, suggesting their prima facie potential to lead to fuel additives/supplements. Similarly, the Char obtained in the presence of H3BO3, ZnCl2, KOH, and only pure lignin were respectively, 40%, 53%, 48%, and 33 wt% with a high calorific value. Char obtained from KOH application demonstrated good uptake of Carbofuran (pesticide) from the aqueous solution. Less modified, cost-effective activated char was characterized using FTIR, TG-DTA, XRD, SEM, and BET-BJH, indicating 188.798 m2/g; this explores the role of KOH to form a microporous structure. Pseudo-second-order kinetics explain chemisorption to be dominant in the adsorption process. Thus, pyrolysis at selected temperatures/additives/and further treatments provides a much better way to utilize industrial waste lignin.
8. Green microalgal strain Chlorella vulgaris isolated from industrial wastewater with remediation capacity
Environmental Technology & Innovation, Available online 27 April 2022, 102597
The present work primarily focused on isolation of Chlorella vulgaris from industrial wastewater, and use as an effective feedstock for producing renewable biodiesel. Post isolation, the lipid was extracted from Chlorella vulgaris using Soxhlet’s extraction method; and the extracted lipid was converted into algal oil biodiesel, which was then characterized using GC-MS spectral analysis. From the optimized reaction parameters: reaction temperature (45 °C), methanol/ C. vulgaris bio-oil ratio (4:1), catalyst concentration (300 mg) of synthesized lipase immobilized magnetic nanoparticles, and reaction time (6 h) under continuous stirring, the highest yield of C. vulgaris biodiesel was recorded as 87.6%. Besides, the lipase immobilized nano-bio catalyst used in the production process, was found to be highly efficient for about 5 to 6 cycles without any significant loss in the conversion efficiency. Finally, the evaluated fuel properties of the produced C. vulgaris biodiesel were in good agreement with ASTM D6751 standards.
9. Characterising the ground level concentrations of harmful organic and inorganic substances released during major industrial fires, and implications for human health
Environment International, Volume 162, April 2022, 107152
We report on the concentration ranges and combustion source-related emission profiles of organic and inorganic species released during 34 major industrial fires in the UK. These episodic events tend to be acute in nature and demand a rapid public health risk assessment to indicate the likely impact on exposed populations. The objective of this paper is to improve our understanding of the nature, composition and potential health impacts of emissions from major incident fires and so support the risk assessment process. Real world monitoring data was obtained from portable Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) monitoring (Gasmet DX-4030/40) carried out as part of the UK’s Air Quality in Major Incidents service. The measured substances include carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen cyanide, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzene, acrolein, phosgene, arsine, phosphine and methyl isocyanate. We evaluate the reported concentrations against Acute Exposure Guideline Values (AEGLs) and Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs), as well as against UK, EU and WHO short-term ambient guideline values. Most exceedances of AEGL or ERPG guideline values were at levels likely only to cause discomfort to exposed populations (hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride and formaldehyde), though for several substances the exceedances could have potentially given rise to more serious health effects (acrolein, phosphine, phosgene and methyl isocyanate). In the latter cases, the observed high concentrations are likely to be due to cross-interference from other substances that absorb in the mid-range of the infrared spectrum, particularly when the ground level plume is very concentrated.
10. Incorporation of sludge from effluent treatment plant of an industrial laundry into heavy clay ceramics
Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 47, 15 April 2022, 103451
The textile sector, in particular the laundries, is one of the industrial sectors that generates large quantity of wastes that require an appropriate treatment before their disposal in the environment. In addition to productive costs increasing, the deposition of wastes in appropriate sanitary landfills is the least noble alternative as regards the inverted pyramid for solid waste management hierarchy. In this context, the traditional ceramics industries which produce primarily bricks and roofing tiles represents one of the best alternatives to use a huge variety of industrial solid wastes. The main objective of this work is to assess the technical, environmental and the economic feasibility to use the dried textile sludge as raw material for the traditional ceramic industry. The results demonstrated that the presence of organic matter in the waste resulted in a high loss on ignition, which increased the ceramic porosity, generating an increase in water absorption and firing linear shrinkage and a mechanical strength reduction. However, although this waste has impaired the properties, the values of all of them were within the limits required by Brazilian standards for bricks. In addition, heat release occurred during the volatilization of the organic compounds in the dried textile sludge, which may contribute to energy saving during the ceramic firing stage. In relation to the environmental analysis, it can be concluded that this waste can be used as by-product for traditional ceramics industries without causing significant damage to the environment.
11. Highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of hazardous industrial and pharmaceutical pollutants using gadolinium doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 901, 25 April 2022, 163604
This investigation highlights the synthesis of an efficient photocatalyst, 10% gadolinium (Gd) doped BiFeO3 (BGFO) nanoparticles, via a facile hydrothermal technique at a lower reaction temperature of 160 ∘C and its effective application towards the degradation of industrial effluents, such as rhodamine B (RhB), methylene blue (MB) and pharmaceutical pollutants such as ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin (LFX) under solar irradiation. The successful fabrication of the photocatalyst was confirmed by the Rietveld refined powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. The high resolution transmission electron microscope imaging demonstrated the formation of nanoparticles with excellent morphology and very good crystallinity. The optical characterizations revealed a reduction in the optical band gap from 1.95 to 1.18 eV, as well as effective suppression of electron-hole pair recombination in the BGFO sample. Notably, the photocatalyst BGFO demonstrated 96% and 97% degradation of RhB and MB within 240 and 180 min of solar irradiation, respectively. Moreover, the photodegradation of colorless organic contaminants CIP and LFX was also examined to evaluate the photosensitization properties. Interestingly, about 80% and 79% degradation of CIP and LFX was obtained within 240 min of solar irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activities of BGFO could be attributed to the excellent morphology, good crystallinity, increased optical absorption, and effective separation of the photogenerated charge carriers. Additionally, based on the band structures, a plausible mechanism was proposed to comprehend the rationale behind the influential photocatalytic performance of the synthesized nanoparticles to explore their potential towards the future of wastewater treatment on an industrial scale.
12. Detection of picric acid in industrial effluents using multifunctional green fluorescent B/N-carbon quantum dots
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 2, April 2022, 107209
Carbon quantum dots have recently gained widespread attention due to their excellent physicochemical features. The rapid escalation in the dumping of hazardous chemicals into water, spurred demand for developing efficient and selective sensors for toxic chemicals. Herein, we have developed a novel fluorescence sensor for picric acid which is a major pollutant in industrial effluents. The new strategy exploits the development of a fluorescence sensor based on N-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) followed by boron functionalization. The N-CQDs were synthesized in a rapid single-step microwave technique by employing L-serine and citric acid. Subsequent boron functionalization of N-CQDs was carried out using boric acid for the synthesis of Boron-nitrogen carbon quantum dots (B/N-CQDs). The B/N-CQDs were found to exhibit high quantum yield (24%), good water solubility, outstanding photostability features, and bright green fluorescence under UV light. The morphology of B/N-CQDs is spherical, with scattered particle sizes ranging from 2 to 8 nanometers. Furthermore, B/N-CQDs were found to be an effective fluorescence probe for the selective and sensitive detection of picric acid, with a good linear range of 37 nM-30 µM and a detection limit of 1.8 nM. The Photoluminescence (PL) intensity of B/N-CQDs was selectively quenched by picric acid. The quenching mechanism was conclusively established using fluorescence lifetime decay studies. Moreover, the synthesized B/N-CQDs was successfully employed for the analysis of picric acid from industrial effluents and cell imaging with Hela cells to showcase the utility of the developed fluorescent probe.
13. Simultaneous hydrolysis of various protein-rich industrial wastes by a naturally evolved protease from tannery wastewater microbiota
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 815, 1 April 2022, 152796
Elimination of protein-rich waste materials is one of the vital environmental protection requirements. Using of non-naturally occurring chemicals for their remediation properties can potentially induce new pollutants. Therefore, enzymes encoded in the genomes of microorganisms evolved in the same environment can be considered suitable alternatives to chemicals. Identification of efficient proteases that can hydrolyze recalcitrant, protein-rich wastes produced by various industrial processes has been widely welcomed as an eco-friendly waste management strategy. In this direction, we attempted to screen a thermo-halo-alkali-stable metagenome-derived protease (PersiProtease1) from tannery wastewater. The PersiProtease1 exhibited high pH stability over a wide range and at 1 h in pH 11.0 maintained 87.59% activity. The enzyme possessed high thermal stability while retaining 76.64% activity after 1 h at 90 °C. Moreover, 65.34% of the initial activity of the enzyme remained in the presence of 6 M NaCl, showing tolerance against high salinity. The presence of various metal ions, inhibitors, and organic solvents did not remarkably inhibit the activity of the discovered protease. The PersiProtease1 was extracted from the tannery wastewater microbiota and efficiently applied for biodegradation of real sample tannery wastewater protein, chicken feathers, whey protein, dehairing sheepskins, and waste X-ray films. PersiProtease1 proved its enormous potential in simultaneous biodegradation of solid and liquid protein-rich industrial wastes based on the results.
14. Red mud industrial waste translated into green electricity production by innovating an ingenious process based on Hydroelectric Cell
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 2, April 2022, 107299
Globally a prominent hazardous industrial waste red mud (RM) residue is released in million tons everyday from alumina refinery. One of the best options to utilize red mud is the fabrication of Hydroelectric Cell (HEC) to produce green electricity, has been reported. Hydroelectric Cell is a 21st century phenomenal revolutionary invention to produce green electricity by water splitting at room temperature by oxygen-defects and nanopores deliberately created in metal oxides. HECs have been fabricated to produce green electricity by using mixture of red mud and iron oxide (RMFe). Splitting of water molecule heterolytically takes place on the cation-oxygen vacancy pair (Mδ+-Voδ−) present on the surface of RM and RMFe pellets. It has been observed from the Williamson-Hall, plots and Photoluminescence analysis that RMFe particles exhibit large strain and defects due to inter-ionic diffusivity of different metal cations. More hetero-ionic pairs of Fe3+-Voδ-, Ca2+-Voδ- and Al3+-Voδ- present on the RMFe surface increase the adsorption and chemidissociation of water. The RM and RMFe based HECs have delivered 7 mA and 17 mA peak current and voltage 0.8 V and 1.02 V. Red mud utilization in the fabrication of Hydroelectric Cell is a significant step towards waste management and wealth creation.
15. Agro-industrial waste enzymes: Perspectives in circular economy
Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Volume 34, April 2022, 100585
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, approximately 1.3 billion tons of food is wasted each year, equivalent to approximately one-third of world production. Agri-food wastes are the source of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and other essential minerals that have been exploited for value-added products by the development of biorefineries and sustainable business as important elements of circular economies. The innovation and materialization of these types of processes, including the use of disruptive technologies on microbial bioconversion and enzyme technology, such as nanotechnology, metabolic engineering, and multi-omics platforms, increase the perspectives on the waste valorization process. Lignocellulolytic enzymes, pectinases, and proteases are mainly used as catalyzers on agri-food waste treatment, and their production in house might be the trend in near future for agro-industrial countries. Another way to transform the agri-food wastes is via aerobic or anaerobic microbial process from fungal or bacterial cultures; these processes are the key to produce waste enzymes.
16. Removal of persistent acetophenone from industrial waste-water via bismuth ferrite nanostructures
Chemosphere, Available online 30 April 2022, 134750
Increasing water pollution is a severe problem in densely industrialized countries. Nanomaterials provide strong potentials for the efficient elimination of organic pollutants due to their beneficial properties. Advancement in water purification is required to more efficiently remove the emerging organic contaminants, especially in pharmaceuticals wastes such as acetophenone, which shows high solubility in industrial wastewaters. Bismuth ferrite-based nanostructures were fabricated using a novel double solvent sol-gel method. The phase purity and crystallinity of bismuth ferrite were confirmed using XRD and further endorsed by TEM analysis. The SEM and XPS were used to study the particle sizes and presence of co-dopants on the Bi and Fe-sites of bismuth ferrite. After co-doping, the band-gap engineering of pure bismuth ferrites was accomplished by reducing it from 2.06 eV to 1.45 eV, likely attributing to the creation of shallow traps for the incoming photo-generated charge carriers. In particular, the Bi0.90Gd0.10Fe0.95Sn0.05 and Bi0.95Sm0.05Fe0.75Mn0.25 successfully eliminated up to 98% of acetophenone from polluted water in 3 h by irradiation of visible-light. These results reveal the suitability of the co-doped bismuth ferrites photocatalysts for the practical removal of pharmaceutical contaminants in hazardous industrial wastewater. The photodegradation of acetophenone by bismuth ferrite nanostructures with potentially long-lasting reusability demonstrate its potential as an advanced photocatalyst for wastewater treatment.
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