Áp lực lớn từ suy thoái môi trường tác động tới đời sống, kinh tế – xã hội đòi hỏi các chính phủ phải có tầm nhìn mới và quyết tâm triển khai các giải pháp toàn diện cho chiến lược bảo vệ môi trường.
Bằng chất xám của mình, các nhà khoa học chính là những chiến sỹ tuyến đầu trên mặt trận bảo vệ Hành tinh xanh với việc công bố hàng chục triệu bài báo liên quan đến môi trường trên các tạp chí khoa học thế giới. Trong những vấn đề liên quan tới môi trường, quản lý môi trường là lĩnh vực rộng, bao quát khắp các hoạt động kinh tế – xã hội, từ sản xuất kinh doanh cho đến sinh hoạt, các khu công nghiệp, làng nghề cho đến sản xuất nông nghiệp, từ thành thị đến nông thôn,… mỗi nơi đều có nhiều vấn đề đa dạng khác nhau.
Trong số này, Chuyên trang Quản lý môi trường giới thiệu tới quý độc giả những nội dung chính như sau:
Về quản lý môi trường
– Phân tích tổng hợp về tác động của khí tượng và khí thải trong xu hướng PM2.5 và O3 tại các khu vực khác nhau ở Trung Quốc từ năm 2013 đến năm 2020 1: Mô hình lưu thông khái quát và ô nhiễm.
– Mức độ thay đổi của hệ sinh thái như thế nào: Cách tiếp cận và áp dụng tính toán cấp quốc gia.
– Tác động của đại dịch COVID-19 đối với lượng khí thải carbon toàn cầu là gì?
– Mô hình tối ưu hóa đa mục tiêu vòng đời tích hợp cho mối quan hệ sức khỏe – môi trường – kinh tế trong lĩnh vực quản lý chất thải thực phẩm.
– Giám sát SARS-CoV-2 tại ba cống ở các quy mô và độ phức tạp khác nhau thể hiện mối quan hệ đặc biệt giữa các phép đo nước thải và dữ liệu COVID-19.
– Chất thải ướt đối với năng lượng sinh học và than sinh học: Một đánh giá quan trọng với các triển vọng trong tương lai.
– Chất lỏng địa nhiệt giàu asen là vật liệu độc hại đối với môi trường – Đánh giá toàn cầu.
– Suy luận bất đối xứng về tính trung lập của cacbon và chính sách chuyển đổi năng lượng ở Úc: Giá trị của đầu tư trực tiếp nước ngoài.
– Tăng chi phí môi trường có thúc đẩy tăng trưởng xanh công nghiệp không? Một thử nghiệm gần như tự nhiên dựa trên chính sách tăng phí thoát nước tiêu chuẩn.
Về môi trường đô thị
– Mô hình hóa quy mô nhỏ của đảo nhiệt đô thị: So sánh nhiều phương pháp tiếp cận hồi quy tuyến tính và rừng ngẫu nhiên.
– Các vấn đề của công nghệ thu gom: Thành phần chất rắn trong nước thải đô thị thúc đẩy sự phức tạp của cấu trúc cộng đồng vi sinh vật và cấu trúc axit béo dễ bay hơi trong quá trình lên men kỵ khí.
– Mối quan hệ chặt chẽ giữa ô nhiễm không khí xung quanh và tỷ lệ tử vong ở trẻ sơ sinh ở Ấn Độ.
– Sự tham gia của người dân và giảm thiểu ô nhiễm không khí đô thị: Bằng chứng từ chính sách nền tảng thổi còi môi trường ở Tứ Xuyên, Trung Quốc.
– Mối liên quan giữa sự khác biệt về các thông số tế bào máu liên quan đến bệnh thiếu máu và sự tiếp xúc ngắn hạn với các chất ô nhiễm hạt xung quanh ở những người trung niên và cao tuổi ở Bắc Kinh, Trung Quốc.
– Mô hình hồi quy sử dụng đất có độ phân giải không gian cao để đánh giá phơi nhiễm hạt siêu mịn đô thị ở Thượng Hải, Trung Quốc.
– Hỗ trợ các dịch vụ hệ sinh thái đô thị trên cạn, biển và nước ngọt.
– Mức độ phổ biến, sản xuất và độc tính sinh thái của các sản phẩm phụ metformin có nguồn gốc từ clo trong các hệ thống nước đô thị Trung Quốc.
– Theo dõi các chất ô nhiễm trong mạng lưới nước thải thành phố làm ảnh hưởng đến hoạt động của nhà máy xử lý nước thải.
– Kim loại nặng từ việc sử dụng đất nặng? Mô hình không gian-thời gian của tải trọng kim loại dòng chảy đô thị.
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
– Tăng cường hiệu quả khử nitơ bằng cách sử dụng chất lỏng lên men chất thải đô thị và công nghiệp làm nguồn cacbon bên ngoài.
– Loại bỏ các hạt protein bị biến tính, tăng cường xử lý UASB đối với nước thải sản xuất oxytetracycline.
– Mô hình năng lượng và phát thải CO2 cho ngành công nghiệp gia công độc đáo có xem xét các đặc điểm chế biến.
– Sự thay đổi theo mùa và xác định nguồn gốc của thủy ngân đặc trưng trong khí quyển ở một khu vực cảng công nghiệp ở Đông Á.
– Phân hủy sinh học của nhựa sinh học mới làm từ tinh bột, polyhydroxyurethanes và các tinh thể nano xenlulo trong môi trường đất.
– Sự chấp nhận của xã hội đối với việc xây dựng một nhà máy nhiệt điện kết hợp gần nơi ở của người dân ở Hàn Quốc.
– Hiệu quả của bể phản ứng sinh học màng kỵ khí trong điều kiện tuần hoàn chất lỏng gián đoạn và khả năng tiết kiệm năng lượng so với bùn hoạt tính thông thường để xử lý nước thải công nghiệp.
– Xây dựng hệ thống cho nền tảng sản xuất hợp tác được nối mạng theo định hướng hệ sinh thái công nghiệp toàn diện (NCMP) dựa trên ba chuỗi.
– Khảo sát sự tương tác của chất thải sinh khối với chất thải rắn công nghiệp trong quá trình đồng nhiệt phân và tác động tổng hợp của quá trình khí hóa than của nó.
Dưới đây là tên và tóm tắt các nghiên cứu bằng tiếng Anh
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. How has the efficiency of China’s green development evolved? An improved non-radial directional distance function measurement
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 815, 1 April 2022, 152337
As a key choice for human sustainable development, green development is also one of China’s five major vision points. To explore the level of green development in China since it was first written into national documents in 2011, this paper applies an improved non-radial distance function based on Data Envelopment Analysis method to analyze the progress against the development targets set in related national documents. The results show that: (1) China’s green development efficiency has kept increasing in 2011–2017. (2) The growth in green development efficiency was significantly higher in the 13th Five-Year Plan period compared to the 12th Five-Year Plan period. (3) The green development efficiency shows a decreasing trend from south to north, east of the Hu line. This study provides a more practical idea for evaluating the quality of green development in mainland China.
2. Multi-scale analysis of the impacts of meteorology and emissions on PM2.5 and O3 trends at various regions in China from 2013 to 2020 1: Synoptic circulation patterns and pollution
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 815, 1 April 2022, 152770
A multiscale analysis of meteorological trends was carried out to investigate the impacts of the large-scale circulation types as well as the local-scale key weather elements on the complex air pollutants, i.e. PM2.5 and O3 in China. As the first paper in the series, the relationship between synoptic circulation patterns and pollution was investigated. Six types of circulation patterns are defined and clustered to correlate with the observed pollutant levels, resulting in the identification of the impact similarity and difference of circulations on PM2.5 and O3 for three regions in China, i.e., the BTH (Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei), YRD (Yangtze River Delta) and PRD (Peral River Delta), from 2013 to 2020. It is found that the six clustered circulation patterns were able to classify the circulation patterns that influence the pollutants and yield significant correlations with O3 and PM2.5 in three regions. The major circulation patterns governing the heavy PM2.5 and O3 were identified separately for each region and found to show inter-annual variabilities. Composite analysis indicated that there were some circulation patterns that caused the dual-highs of PM2.5 and O3 with about 13%, 8% and 3% occurrences during the period of 2013 to 2020 in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, respectively. The key weather elements for each type of circulation pattern were also identified. A detailed study of the impacts of key weather elements and emissions on the PM2.5 and O3 trends will accompany this paper (Gong et al., 2022).
3. Exploring the potential role of environmental and multi-source satellite data in crop yield prediction across Northeast China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 815, 1 April 2022, 152880
Developing an accurate crop yield predicting system at a large scale is of paramount importance for agricultural resource management and global food security. Earth observation provides a unique source of information to monitor crops from a diversity of spectral ranges. However, the integrated use of these data and their values in crop yield prediction is still understudied. Here we proposed the combination of environmental data (climate, soil, geography, and topography) with multiple satellite data (optical-based vegetation indices, solar-induced fluorescence (SIF), land surface temperature (LST), and microwave vegetation optical depth (VOD)) into the framework to estimate crop yield for maize, rice, and soybean in northeast China, and their unique value and relative influence on yield prediction was assessed. Two linear regression methods, three machine learning (ML) methods, and one ML ensemble model were adopted to build yield prediction models. Results showed that the individual ML methods outperformed the linear regression methods, the ML ensemble model further improved the single ML models. Moreover, models with more inputs achieved better performance, the combination of satellite data with environmental data, which explained 72%, 69%, and 57% of maize, rice, and soybean yield variability, respectively, demonstrated higher yield prediction performance than individual inputs. While satellite data contributed to crop yield prediction mainly at the early-peak of the growing season, climate data offered extra information mainly at the peak-late season. We also found that the combined use of EVI, LST and SIF has improved the model accuracy compared to the benchmark EVI model. However, the optical-based vegetation indices shared similar information and did not provide much extra information beyond EVI. The within-season yield forecasting showed that crop yields can be satisfactorily forecasted at two to three months prior to harvest. Geography, topography, VOD, EVI, soil hydraulic and nutrient parameters are more important for crop yield prediction.
4. How the ecosystem extent is changing: A national-level accounting approach and application
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 815, 1 April 2022, 152903
Assessing the spatial and temporal changes in ecosystems is essential to account for natural capital contribution to human well-being. However, various methods to quantify these changes challenge the development of reliable values which can be integrated into national statistical accounts. Following the international system of environmental-economic accounting framework, which recently adopts an ecosystem accounting standard. We present a novel approach to develop an ecosystem extent account from existing ecosystem classifications. This study shows the spatial and statistical extent account of 26 ecosystems (i.e. forests, grasslands, croplands, and urban, among others) between 1970 and 2015 at the national scale. Extent accounts were developed at a resolution of 25 m and provided reliable information on how ecosystem types have changed over time in Spain. Our results reflect three main patterns in the extension account: (i) an increase in forest ecosystems, (ii) a considerable decrease in agroecosystems (especially annual croplands), and (iii) substantial development of urban areas. To the best of our knowledge, this method is the first attempt to develop a robust methodology to measure the extent of ecosystems at the national level. The proposed approach is crucial for a strong knowledge of ecosystem dynamics and their implications for ecosystem conditions and services at a national level. This has potential applications in urban planning, green infrastructure development, and multiple uses for territory management and policies, integrating natural capital into official statistics and mainstreaming ecosystems into national-level planning and monitoring processes.
5. Small stream catchments in a developing city context: The importance of land cover changes on the ecological status of streams and the possibilities for providing ecosystem services Science of The Total Environment
Volume 815, 1 April 2022, 151974, Science of The Total Environment
Urban expansion and the transformation of rural areas into suburban areas along with increasing human pressure can cause major changes in the environment. Typical effects of urbanization include degradation of aquatic ecosystems. However, urban expansion is often accompanied by an effort to provide residents with some contact with nature in the city. Natural waterbodies are the elements of the environment predestined to ensure appropriate conditions for recreation and other ecosystem services key to human well-being. In this study, the changes in the forms of development of a submontane stream catchment area (Carpathians, Poland) against the background of the gradual extension of city boundaries were analysed. In addition, the impact of urbanization on the ecological conditions of the urban stream, and therefore the potential ecosystem to provide ecosystem services, was assessed. Although the extension of the city entailed the development of settlements, it was accompanied by the expansion of the municipal sewage infrastructure, thus improving sewage management. The disappearance of arable lands from the stream catchment due to the decline in agricultural activities initiated the spontaneous process of buffer restoration along the stream. All the biotic indices such as Shannon diversity index, Margalef species richness index and BMWP-PL index, based on macroinvertebrate communities increased, and the fish were more numerous in the late stage of city development compared with the early (rural) stage. Surprisingly, the system has rehabilitated well with no revitalisation actions. It is necessary, however, to improve morphological in-stream conditions, and to make further efforts to improve water quality for the system to develop a semi-natural state. Only reaching full ecological potential can lead to an increase in the ecosystem capacity to provide ecosystem services. The studied ecosystem may provide many different services simultaneously, but their availability depends on the protection of the ecosystem’s functioning as a whole.
6. Two-year systematic investigation reveals alterations induced on chemical and bacteriome profile of PM2.5 by African dust incursions to the Mediterranean atmosphere
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 815, 1 April 2022, 151976
PM2.5 atmospheric samples were regularly collected between January 2013 and March 2015 at a central location of Eastern Mediterranean (Island of Crete) during African dust events (DES) and periods of absence of such episodes as controls (CS). The elemental composition and microbiome DES and CS were thoroughly investigated. Fifty-six major and trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Relative mass abundances (RMA) of major crustal elements and lanthanoids were higher in DES than in CS. Conversely in CS, RMAs were higher for most anthropogenic transition metals. Lanthanum-to-other lanthanoids concentration ratios for DES approached the corresponding reference values for continental crust and several African dust source regions, while in CS they exceeded these values. USEPA’s UNMIX receptor model, applied in all PM2.5 samples, established that African dust is the dominant contributing source (by 80%) followed by road dust/fuel oil emissions (17%) in the receptor area. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) identified dust hotspots in Tunisia, Libya and Egypt. The application of 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing revealed high variation of bacterial composition and diversity between DES and CS samples. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroides were the most dominant in both DES and CS samples, representing ~88% of the total bacterial diversity. Cutibacterium, Tumebacillus and Sphingomonas dominated the CS samples, while Rhizobium and Brevundimonas were the most prevalent genera in DES. Mutual exclusion/co-occurrence network analysis indicated that Sphingomonas and Chryseobacterium exhibited the highest degrees of mutual exclusion in CS, while in DES the corresponding species were Brevundimonas, Delftia, Rubellimicrobium, Flavobacterium, Blastococcus, and Pseudarthrobacter. Some of these microorganisms are emerging global opportunistic pathogens and an increase in human exposure to them as a result of environmental changes, is inevitable.
7. What is the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on global carbon emissions?
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 816, 10 April 2022, 151503
The coronavirus 2019 (COVID 19, or SARS-CoV-2) pandemic that started in December 2019 has caused an unprecedented impact in most countries globally and continues to threaten human lives worldwide. The COVID-19 and strict lockdown measures have had adverse effects on human health and national economies. These lockdown measures have played a critical role in improving air quality, water quality, and the ozone layer and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Using Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Level 4 carbon (SMAP LC4) satellite products, this study investigated the impacts of COVID-19 lockdown measures on annual carbon emissions globally, focusing on 47 greatly affected countries and their 105 cities by December 2020. It is shown that while the lockdown measures significantly reduced carbon emissions globally, several countries and cities observed this reduction as temporary because strict lockdown measures were not imposed for extended periods in 2020. Overall, the total carbon emissions of select 184 countries reduced by 438 Mt in 2020 than in 2019. Since the global economic activities are slowly expected to return to the non-COVID-19 state, the reduction in carbon emissions during the pandemic will not be sustainable in the long run. For sustainability, concerned authorities have to put significant efforts to change transportation, climate, and environmental policies globally that fuel carbon emissions. Overall, the presented results provide directions to the stakeholders and policymakers to develop and implement measures to control carbon emissions for a sustainable environment.
8. An integrated life cycle multi-objective optimization model for health-environment-economic nexus in food waste management sector
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 816, 10 April 2022, 151541
Food waste is a universal problem in many countries. In line with Sustainable Development Goals 7 and 12, it is crucial to identify a cost-effective food waste valorization management framework with the least human health and environmental impacts. However, studies on the synergistic effect of life cycle assessment and mathematical optimization interconnected with human health, environment, and economic are relatively few and far between; hence they cannot provide holistic recommendations to policymakers in developing environmental and economic feasibility of food waste management frameworks. Taking Malaysia as a case study, this study proposes a simple and deterministic model that integrates life cycle assessment and multi-objective mathematical optimization to unpack the health-environment-economic wellbeing nexus in food waste management sector. The model evaluates the life cycle human health, environmental, and economic impacts of five food waste disposal and valorization technologies: open landfill, sanitary landfill, aerated windrow composting, high-temperature drying sterilization, and anaerobic digestion, and identifies the optimal food waste valorization configuration solution in Malaysia. Based on the results modeled by SimaPro 9.0 and General Algebraic Modeling System with augmented ε-constraint, valorization of food waste into electricity via anaerobic digestion is the most favorable option, with 146% and 161% reduction of human health and ecosystems, respectively, as compared with open landfill. If cost is combined as an objective function with human health and ecosystems, high-temperature drying sterilization is the most attractive scenario due to the high livestock feed revenue. Among the 10 Pareto-optimal solutions, 9% sanitary landfill, 3% aerated windrow composting, 30% high-temperature drying sterilization, 30% anaerobic digestion to electricity, and 28% anaerobic digestion to cooking gas, is recommended as future food waste management configuration. The sensitivity results demonstrate that prices of electricity, cooking gas, and livestock feed affect the optimal configuration food waste management system.
9. SARS-CoV-2 monitoring at three sewersheds of different scales and complexity demonstrates distinctive relationships between wastewater measurements and COVID-19 case data
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 816, 10 April 2022, 151534
Wastewater monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 presents a means of tracking COVID-19 community infection dynamics on a broader geographic scale. However, accounting for environmental and sample-processing losses may be necessary for wastewater measurements to readily inform our understanding of infection prevalence. Here, we present measurements of the SARS-CoV-2 N1 and N2 gene targets from weekly wastewater samples at three sites in Hamilton County, Ohio, during an increase and subsequent decline of COVID-19 infections. The concentration of N1 or N2 RNA in wastewater, measured over the course of six months, ranged from below the detection limit to over 104 gene copies/l, and correlated with case data at two wastewater treatment plants, but not at a sub-sewershed-level sampling site. We also evaluated the utility of a broader range of variables than has been reported consistently in previous work, in improving correlations of SARS-CoV-2 concentrations with case data. These include a spiked matrix recovery control (OC43), flow-normalization, and assessment of fecal loading using endogenous fecal markers (HF183, PMMoV, crAssphage). We found that adjusting for recovery, flow, and fecal indicators increased these correlations for samples from a larger sewershed (serving ~488,000 people) with greater industrial and stormwater inputs, but raw N1/N2 concentrations corresponded better with case data at a smaller, residential-oriented sewershed. Our results indicate that the optimal adjustment factors for correlating wastewater and clinical case data moving forward may not be generalizable to all sewersheds.
10. Environmental implications of economic transformation in China’s Pearl River Delta region: Dynamics at four nested geographical scales over 1987–2017
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 816, 10 April 2022, 151631
Environmental pollution in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region is largely driven by socioeconomic forces outside the region as vast majority of manufacturing products produced in the region are destined to national and international markets. Given the remarkable economic transformation of the PRD in the past decades, this study investigates the impacts of local, provincial, national, and global socio-economic drivers on PRD’s pollution dynamics under the background of significant economic restructuring and upgrading from 1987 to 2017. The results indicate that changes in pollution pattern were deeply shaped by the economic transformation. The share of PRD’s emissions driven by international exports expanded significantly before 2007 as a result of the fast growth of international exports. The transformation of economic growth to domestic consumption driven model since the 2007–2008 global financial crisis had resulted in an increasing contribution share to the PRD’s environmental pollution from local demand and trade with Rest of China (RoC). Similarly, as final demand structure evolving towards the high value-added manufacturing and services, the share of emissions driven by low value-added manufacturing (LVM) demand had decreased by an enlarged margin, while that driven by high value-added manufacturing (HVM) demand and services demand had moved in the opposite direction. The structural decomposition analysis shows that reduction in emission intensity remains the most effective way in pollution alleviation. The contribution of changes in production input structure also shifted from a strong impetus force before 2007 to a mitigating force afterwards due to significant technological progresses in the industrial sectors since the global financial crisis. With the marginal cost of reducing emission intensity becoming prohibitively expensive, the optimization of production structure and consumption pattern is likely to play more important role in future emission mitigation.
11. Wet wastes to bioenergy and biochar: A critical review with future perspectives
Science of The Total Environment , Volume 817, 15 April 2022, 152921
The ever-increasing rise in the global population coupled with rapid urbanization demands considerable consumption of fossil fuel, food, and water. This in turn leads to energy depletion, greenhouse gas emissions and wet wastes generation (including food waste, animal manure, and sewage sludge). Conversion of the wet wastes to bioenergy and biochar is a promising approach to mitigate wastes, emissions and energy depletion, and simultaneously promotes sustainability and circular economy. In this study, various conversion technologies for transformation of wet wastes to bioenergy and biochar, including anaerobic digestion, gasification, incineration, hydrothermal carbonization, hydrothermal liquefaction, slow and fast pyrolysis, are comprehensively reviewed. The technological challenges impeding the widespread adoption of these wet waste conversion technologies are critically examined. Eventually, the study presents insightful recommendations for the technological advancements and wider acceptance of these processes by establishing a hierarchy of factors dictating their performance. These include: i) life-cycle assessment of these conversion technologies with the consideration of reactor design and catalyst utilization from lab to plant level; ii) process intensification by integrating one or more of the wet waste conversion technologies for improved performance and sustainability; and iii) emerging machine learning modeling is a promising strategy to aid the product characterization and optimization of system design for the specific to the bioenergy or biochar application.
12. Arsenic-rich geothermal fluids as environmentally hazardous materials – A global assessment
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 817, 15 April 2022, 152669
Arsenic-rich geothermal fluids are hazardous materials of global impact, affecting different environments (groundwater, surface water, seawater, sediments, soils, atmosphere) and human and animal health. They can be released naturally or through human activities. For the first time, a systematic global assessment of geothermal arsenic (As) in fluids of the six principal types of geothermal reservoirs and their environmental impact (e.g. freshwater sources used for drinking and irrigation), distinguishing between different uses (if any), was performed based on research of the geochemical characteristics and geotectonic setting of the formation of natural geothermal reservoirs worldwide. This will assist to further improve the sustainability of geothermal energy use, which can be an excellent environmental friendly renewable energy resource for electric power production and direct heat use. Arsenic in geothermal fluids (up to several tens of mg/L) originates especially in deep seated (several kilometers) reservoirs. Proper management of geothermal fluids during exploration, exploitation, use and disposal of resulting waste products through sustainable As mitigation strategies are essential. However, more research about As speciation and volatile As is necessary to fulfil this aim. Therefore As (and its principal species) needs to be included as parameter for standard analysis and monitoring program in any project using geothermal fluids from exploration to management of resulting wastes as base to define appropriate mitigation actions.
13. Sustainable processes for treatment and management of seafood solid waste
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 817, 15 April 2022, 152951
Seafood processing is an important economical activity worldwide and is an integral part of the food chain system. However, their processing results in solid waste generation whose disposal and management is a serious concern. Proteins, amino acids, lipids with high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), carotenoids, and minerals are abundant in the discards, effluents, and by-catch of seafood processing waste. As a result, it causes nutritional loss and poses major environmental risks. To solve the issues, it is critical that the waste be exposed to secondary processing and valorization for recovery of value added products. Although chemical waste treatment technologies are available, the majority of these procedures have inherent flaws. Biological solutions, on the other hand, are safe, efficacious, and ecologically friendly while maintaining the intrinsic bioactivities after waste conversion. Microbial fermentation or the actions of exogenously introduced enzymes on waste components are used in most bioconversion processes. Algal biotechnology has recently developed unique technologies for biotransformation of nutrients, which may be employed as a feedstock for the recovery of important chemicals as well as biofuel. Bioconversion methods combined with a bio-refinery strategy offer the potential to enable environmentally-friendly and cost-effective seafood waste management. The refinement of these wastes through sustainable bioprocessing interventions can give rise to various circular bioeconomies within the seafood processing sector. Moreover, a techno-economic perspective on the developed solid waste processing lines and its subsequent environmental impact could facilitate commercialization. This review aims to provide a comprehensive view and critical analysis of the recent updates in seafood waste processing in terms of bioconversion processes and byproduct development. Various case studies on circular bioeconomy formulated on seafood processing waste along with techno-economic feasibility for the possible development of sustainable seafood biorefineries have also been discussed.
14. Asymmetric inference of carbon neutrality and energy transition policy in Australia: The (de)merit of foreign direct investment
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 343, 1 April 2022, 131023
The current study examines the effect caused by potential shock arising from the Australia’s ‘Direct Action’ policy in renewable energy, fossil fuel energy, and foreign direct investment (FDI). Considering the Australia’s stake in the energy industrial chain system (production, distribution and marketing) that is majorly fossil fuel-based (coal and gas), it can be said that Australia is occupying a strategic position in the global climate development. For effective investigation and discussion of the findings from this study, we utilized the country’s national data of 1996Q1-2018Q4 with different scientific approaches (such as structural break test and short- and long run asymmetric relationships). Emphasis on the findings and discussions is based on both the short run and long inferences arising from positive and negative shocks. The result informed that economic growth and FDI are found to negatively affect environmental quality in Australia by increasing the country’s carbon emissions. This observation is inherent when there are positive and negative shocks on economic growth while only a positive shock on FDI creates an environmental effect. Further into the findings is the mitigating power of Australian renewable energy sources in its economic and environmental development. This is confirmed with positive shocks to renewable energy reducing carbon emission at the level of 23 percent while the negative shock increases carbon emissions by 16 percent. The findings imply that the economic activities and FDI penetration in Australia are done in energy cum carbon intensive ground. Additionally, evidence shows that energy transition policy is vital towards the achievement of Australian climate goal of 2030 as such a negative shock on alternative energy development such as limited energy financing and reduction or discontinued clean technology subsidies should be discouraged.
15. Do raising environmental costs promote industrial green growth? A Quasi-natural experiment based on the policy of raising standard sewage charges
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 343, 1 April 2022, 131004
In recent years, countries have actively promoted green economic transformation. Formulating reasonable and effective environmental regulation policies is an important way to realize this transformation. Based on a policy of raising standard sewage charges in China, this paper selects the panel data of 30 provinces from 2000 to 2018 and adopts the multi-time Differences-in-Differences (DID) method to empirically examine the effect of raising environmental costs on industrial green total factor productivity (GTFP). This paper finds that industrial GTFP is significantly increased by raising standard sewage charges. The conclusion is still valid after alleviating the endogenous problem and conducting robustness tests. The policy gives a boost to industrial GTFP in Eastern and Western regions, but not significantly in Central regions, according to the heterogeneity test. Further analyses of its transmission process reveal that raising environmental costs can promote industrial green growth, mostly via technological and structural effect. As a result, if all provinces can optimize and upgrade their industrial structures and improve their levels of technological innovation when faced with increasingly strict environmental regulations, they will be able to better change the model of economic growth and realize green industrial development.
16. Does tourism development, energy consumption, trade openness and economic growth matters for ecological footprint: Testing the Environmental Kuznets Curve and pollution haven hypothesis for Pakistan
Energy, Volume 245, 15 April 2022, 123208
The present study investigates the Environmental Kuznets Curve relationship between travel and tourism and ecological footprint in Pakistan over the period 1980–2017. For this purpose, the impact of tourism development, economic growth, energy consumption, trade openness and foreign direct investments on ecological footprint is empirically examined within the EKC framework. The ARDL bounds and Bayer and Hanck tests indicate that variables in this study have long-term cointegration. Results revealed a tourism-led growth hypothesis and an inverted U-shaped relationship between travel and tourism and ecological footprint in Pakistan. The ARDL and Toda-Yamamoto non-causality results also reveal that energy use and trade openness are at the cost of ecological footprint. Moreover, inflow of foreign direct investment also adds environmental degradation and support pollution haven hypothesis. Thus, sustainable tourism, fuel mix variation and services sector oriented foreign direct investment should be the target of policymakers.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Fine-scale modeling of the urban heat island: A comparison of multiple linear regression and random forest approaches
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 815, 1 April 2022, 152836
Characterizing the spatiotemporal variability of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) and its drivers is a key step in leveraging thermal comfort to create not only healthier cities, but also to enhance urban resilience to climate change. In this study, we developed specific daytime and nighttime multiple linear regression (MLR) and random forest (RF) models to analyze and predict the spatiotemporal evolution of the Urban Heat Island intensity (UHII), using the air temperature (Tair) as the response variable. We profited from the wealth of in situ Tair data and a comprehensive pool of predictors variables — including land cover, population, traffic, urban geometry, weather data and atmospheric vertical indices. Cluster analysis divided the study period into three main groups, each dominated by a combination of weather systems that, in turn, influenced the onset and strength of the UHII. Anticyclonic circulations favored the emergence of the largest UHII (hourly mean of 5.06 °C), while cyclonic circulations dampened its development. The MLR models were only able to explain a modest percentage of variance (64 and 34% for daytime and nighttime, respectively), which we interpret as part of their inability to capture key factors controlling Tair. The RF models, on the other hand, performed considerably better, with explanatory power over 96% of the variance for daytime and nighttime conditions, capturing and mapping the fine-scale Tair spatiotemporal variability in both periods and under each cluster condition. The feature importance analysis showed that the meteorological variables and the land cover were the main predictors of the Tair. Urban planners could benefit from these results, using the high-performing RF models as a robust framework for forecasting and mitigating the effects of the UHI.
2. The capture technology matters: Composition of municipal wastewater solids drives complexity of microbial community structure and volatile fatty acid profile during anaerobic fermentation
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 815, 1 April 2022, 152762
The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) represents a relevant option to valorize municipal wastewater (MWW). In this context, different capture technologies can be used to recover organic carbon from wastewater in form of solids, while pre-treatment of those solids has the potential to increase VFA production during subsequent fermentation. Our study investigates how VFA composition produced by fermentation is influenced (i) by the choice of the capture technology, as well as (ii) by the use of thermal alkaline pre-treatment (TAP). Therefore, the fermentation of solids originating from a primary settler, a micro-sieve, and a high-rate activated sludge (HRAS) system was investigated in continuous lab-scale fermenters, with and without TAP. Our study demonstrates that the capture technology strongly influences the composition of the produced solids, which in turn drives the complexity of the fermenter’s microbial community and ultimately, of the VFA composition. Solids captured with the primary settler or micro-sieve consisted primarily of polysaccharides, and led to the establishment of a microbial community specialized in the degradation of complex carbohydrates. The produced VFA composition was relatively simple, with acetate and propionate accounting for >90% of the VFAs. In contrast, the HRAS system produced biomass-rich solids associated with higher protein contents. The microbial community which then developed in the fermenter was therefore more diversified and capable of converting a wider range of substrates (polysaccharides, proteins, amino acids). Ultimately, the produced VFA composition was more complex, with equal fractions of isoacids and propionate (both ~20%), while acetate remained the dominant acid (~50%). Finally, TAP did not significantly modify the VFA composition while increasing VFA yields on HRAS and sieved material by 35% and 20%, respectively. Overall, we demonstrated that the selection of the technology used to capture organic substrates from MWW governs the composition of the VFA cocktail, ultimately with implications for their further utilization.
3. Mask wearing behavior in hot urban spaces of Novi Sad during the COVID-19 pandemic
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 815, 1 April 2022, 152782
Urban overheating (due to climate change and urbanization) and COVID-19 are two converging crises that must be addressed in tandem. Fine-scale, place-based, people-centric biometeorological and behavioral data are needed to implement context-specific preventative measures such as mask-wearing. This study collected local biometeorological measurements in diverse urban spaces (square, urban park, river quay) in Novi Sad, Serbia on hot sunny summer days (27–30 August 2020) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Observations were supplemented by an online survey asking questions about thermal sensation, comfort, and concurrent protective behavior of the local population. Biometeorological measurements show that the main square in the city center was the most thermally uncomfortable area. According to the survey, it was also perceived as the least safe space to not contract the virus. The urban park was perceived as the most thermally comfortable area in the morning and during midday. It was also considered the safest urban space for outdoor activities. In the evening, the river quay was the most thermally comfortable area in the city. Intra-urban differences in Physiologically Equivalent Temperatures were highest during midday, while differences in air temperatures were highest in the evening. More than 70% of the respondents did not wear face masks when it was hot because of breathing issues and feeling warmer than without mask. Most people wearing a mask felt “slightly warm” in the morning and evening, while the majority of respondents felt “hot” during midday. Only 3% of the respondents felt comfortable while wearing a mask, while 97% experienced some degree of discomfort (from slight discomfort to very uncomfortable). Our study shows that fine scale temporal and spatial urban biometeorological data and population surveys should be included in decision-making processes during the pandemic to develop climate-sensitive health services that are place-based, people-centric, and facilitate planning towards green, resilient, and inclusive cities.
4. Differences in fatty acids composition between Plasmodium infected and uninfected house sparrows along an urbanization gradient
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 815, 1 April 2022, 152664
Anthropogenic activities such as intensification of agriculture, animal husbandry and expansion of cities can negatively impact wildlife through its influence on the availability of high-quality food resources and pathogen transmission. The house sparrow (Passer domesticus), an urban exploiter, is undergoing a population decline. Nutritional constrains and infectious diseases has been highlighted as potential causes. Fatty acids (FAs) play an important role in modulating certain immune responses needed to combat parasite infections. FAs are highly influenced by dietary availability and have been shown to vary between urban and rural birds. Habitat anthropization also affects avian malaria epidemiology but little attention has been given to the relationship between blood parasite infection, host FAs composition and anthropization. Here, we analysed 165 juvenile birds either infected by Plasmodium or uninfected, captured at 15 localities grouped in triplets containing urban, rural and natural habitats. The total level of FAs was higher in birds from urban than from rural habitats, suggesting a greater availability of fat-rich foods sources. Furthermore, Plasmodium infected birds had higher relative levels of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) but lower of ω-6 PUFAs than uninfected birds. In concordance, the ω-6/ω-3 ratio was also lower in infected than in uninfected birds, but only from natural habitats, likely driven by the slightly higher ω-3 PUFAs in infected birds from natural habitats. Birds from anthropized environments may metabolize the ω-3 PUFAs to promote anti-inflammatory responses against stressors, which would result in lower ω-3 affecting their response against Plasmodium. Alternatively, lower ω-6 PUFAs may influence birds susceptibility to infection due to a weaker pro-inflammatory response. These descriptive results do not allow us to identify the causality of these associations but highlight the need to further investigate the relevance of FAs for birds to fight infectious diseases in habitats with different degree of urbanization.
5. Influence of corn straw on distribution and migration of nitrogen and heavy metals during microwave-assisted pyrolysis of municipal sewage sludge
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 815, 1 April 2022, 152303
This study explored pyrolysis characteristics, nitrogen transformation and migration of heavy metals during microwave-assisted pyrolysis of municipal sewage sludge in a continuously operated auger pyrolyser at different temperatures and corn straw ratios. The results showed higher temperatures and more corn straw resulted in more gas yield (e.g., CO2, CO, CH4 and H2) and less char yield. 5 wt% corn straw addition at 750 °C achieved high-quality bio-oil with less O-containing compounds, which was more favorable for upgrading to transportation fuels. Sludge chars prepared at higher corn straw ratios had lower ratios of H/C and N/C, and higher carbon content. Nitrogen transformation pathways and mechanisms were investigated. The residual ratio of heavy metals (except Cd) in sludge char was 67.74–100%. However, the residual ratio of Cd decreased significantly to 6.46% at 750 °C. Concentrations of all heavy metals in sludge char conformed to national standard (CJ/T 362-2011, China), and the potential ecological risk was slight. Sludge chars prepared in the presence of corn straw had lower ecological risk and higher retention capacity of heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Ni) compared with pyrolysis of sewage sludge.
6. Bacterial assemblages of urban microbiomes mobilized by runoff waters match land use typologies and harbor core species involved in pollutant degradation and opportunistic human infections
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 815, 1 April 2022, 152662
Cities are patchworks of urban catchments divided into functional units according to their commercial, residential and industrial activities, and socio-urbanistic patterns. The hypothesis of city surface microbiomes being structured by socio-urbanistic variables leading to an emergence of synurbic taxa was tested. According to the r/K microbial ecology theory, a gradient of well-adapted synurbic K-strategists and of opportunistic –r-strategists should occur over city surfaces. K-strategists would be core components while r-ones would be transiently detected. To resolve these patterns, sub-catchments (n = 21) of an area of high commercial and industrial activities were investigated over three time periods covering one year. The sub-catchments’ land use patterns and associated human behaviors were converted into socio-urbanistic variables and groupings. Bacterial cells mobilized by runoffs per sub-catchment were recovered, and analyzed by classical approaches, microbial source tracking DNA assays and DNA meta-barcoding approaches. Relationships between these datasets, the runoff physico-chemical properties, and descriptors of the socio-urbanistic groupings were investigated. 16S rRNA meta-barcoding analyses showed evidence of the occurrence of K- and r-like strategists. Twenty-eight core genera were identified, and correlation networks revealed large bacterial modules organized around actinobacterial taxa involved in hydrocarbon degradation processes. Other bacterial networks were related to the occurrences of hygienic wastes, and involved bacteria originating from fecal contaminations. Several r-strategists like Sulfurospirillum were recorded and found associated to point source pollutions. The tpm-metabarcoding approach deciphered these r / K strategists at the species level among more than ten genera. Nine core K-like Pseudomomas species were identified. The P. aeruginosa human opportunistic pathogen and P. syringae phytopathogens were part of these K-strategists. Other tpm-harboring bacterial pathogens showed r-like opportunistic distribution patterns. Correlation network analyses indicated a strong incidence of hygienic wastes and hydrocarbon-pollutions on tpm-harboring bacteria. These analyses demonstrated the occurrence of core synurbic bacterial K-strategists over city surfaces.
7. Robust relationship between ambient air pollution and infant mortality in India
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 815, 1 April 2022, 152755
Ambient exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is one of the top global health concerns. We estimate the associations between in-utero and perinatal exposure to PM2.5 and infant, neonatal and postneonatal mortality in India. We evaluate the sensitivity of this association to two widely-used exposure assessments.
We linked nationally representative anthropometric data from India’s 2015–2016 Demographic and Health Survey (n = 259,627 children under five across 640 districts of India) with satellite-based PM2.5 concentrations during the month of birth of each child. We then estimated the associations between PM2.5 from each dataset and child mortality, after controlling for child, mother and household factors including trends in time and seasonality. We examined if factors: urban/rural, sex, wealth quintile and state modified the associations derived from the two datasets using Wald tests.
We found evidence that PM2.5 impacts infant mortality primarily through neonatal mortality. The estimated association between neonatal mortality and PM2.5 in trimester 3 was OR: 1.016 (95% CI: 1.003, 1.030) for every 10 μg/m3 increase in exposure. This association was robust to the exposure assessment used. Child sex was a significant effect modifier, with PM2.5 impacting mortality in infant girls more than boys.
Our results revealed a robust association between ambient exposure to PM2.5 in the latter period of pregnancy and early life with infant and neonatal mortality in India. Urgent air pollution management plans are needed to improve infant mortality in India.
8. Improvement of heavy metal removal from urban runoff using modified pervious concrete
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 815, 1 April 2022, 152936
Heavy metals are one of the major chemical pollutant groups in urban runoff. The application of porous concrete is a potential alternative to conventional runoff management systems with the ability to remove heavy metals. Hence, a thorough understanding of the heavy metal removal mechanisms and constraints of conventional porous concrete opens a path for the development of effective modifications. This review critically discusses the major contributors in ordinary porous concrete which supports heavy metal removal. The effects of initial concentration, contact time and competing ions on heavy metal removal using porous concrete are also discussed. Additionally, the effect of decalcification, atmospheric carbonation, acid influent on heavy metal removal is reviewed. The major drawback of porous concrete is the high pH (>8.5) of the effluent water, decalcification of the porous concrete and leaching of adsorbed pollutants. Overall, the addition of adsorbent materials to the porous concrete increases removal efficiencies (7% – 65% increase) without neutralizing the effluent pH. Meanwhile, the addition of Reduced Graphene Oxide is successful in reducing the leachability of the removed heavy metals. The addition of pozzolanic materials can lower the effluent pH while maintaining similar removal efficiencies to unmodified porous concrete. Therefore, developing a novel method of neutralizing the effluent pH must be prioritized in future studies. Additionally, the toxicity that can occur due to the abrasion of modified porous concrete requires study in future research. Further, advanced characterization methods should be used in future studies to understand the mechanisms of removal via the modified porous concrete materials.
9. Freeze-thaw vacuum treatment of landfill sludge: Mechanism of uneven frost heaving and dewatering performance
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 815, 1 April 2022, 152930
The method of freeze-thaw combined with vacuum pretreatment for landfill sludge (LS) has attracted extensive attention. However, most of the existing approaches are based on small-scale laboratory testing, and further testing studies must be performed to realize in situ treatment. To enhance the practicality of such approaches, the range of temperature effects on LS was analysed after field freeze-thaw model testing. After the freeze-thaw model test, samples were transported to the laboratory for unidirectional oedometer tests, and the remaining samples were retained in the field to continue vacuum model testing for exploring the differences in the consolidation and drainage effect of the LS. Results show that temperature changes during freeze-thaw process affect the distribution of sludge and water in the model boxes, resulting in frost heave and the appearance of “extrusion rings”. In addition, the coefficient of consolidation obtained from the unidirectional oedometer test shows that the consolidation coefficient is generally larger near the freezing tubes at a lower temperature. The settlement determined from the field vacuum preloading test shows that the subsequent vacuum consolidation settlement is larger at the position with a lower elevation of the frozen sludge surface. The comparison indicates that the consolidation and drainage effect in the field is not as significant as that in the laboratory. The findings can provide reference to optimize the field conditions during the in situ engineering practice of sludge treatment.
10. Citizen participation and urban air pollution abatement: Evidence from environmental whistle-blowing platform policy in Sichuan China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 816, 10 April 2022, 151521
This study employs the environmental whistle-blowing platform policy adopted at Leshan City, Sichuan Province, China in July 2017 as the quasi-natural experiment and applies Synthetic Control Method (SCM) and Difference-in-Difference (DID) to examine the causal effect between citizen participation, median supervision, and air pollution abatement by government. The results show: first, the launch of the environmental whistle-blowing platform decreases daily AQI at Leshan City by 19 units; second, days with excellent air quality increase by 2.6 days each month on average at Leshan City; third, the probability for a day with excellent or good air quality at Leshan City increases by approximately 16.6%. Moreover, when the sample is expanded from neighboring prefecture level cities of Leshan City to prefecture level cities in Sichuan Province or across China, the results remain robust. Based on the panel data from China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we find the launch of the environmental whistle-blowing platform improves individual’s approval of government at primary level significantly and increases their life satisfaction. This demonstrates citizen participation and media supervision generate substantial effects on air pollution abatement. This study serves as a reference for solutions to improvement of air quality and governance capability of the government.
11. Associations between differences in anemia-related blood cell parameters and short-term exposure to ambient particle pollutants in middle-aged and elderly residents in Beijing, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 816, 10 April 2022, 151520
Anemia is a highly prevalent disease among older populations, with multiple adverse health outcomes, and particles exposure is a potential risk factor for anemia. However, evidence on associations of exposure to particles with small size with anemia-related blood cell parameters levels in the elderly is limited, and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Based on a panel study in Beijing, we found that in 135 elderly participants, mass concentrations of particle with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), black/elemental carbon (BC/EC, particle size range: 0–2.5 μm), and number concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs, particle size range: 5.6–93.1 nm) and accumulated mode particles (Acc, size range: 93.1–560 nm) were significantly associated with levels of red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The mean ± SD for PM2.5, UFPs, Acc, BC, OC, and EC were 69.7 ± 61.1 μg/m3, 12.5 ± 4.3 × 103/cm3, 1.6 ± 1.2 × 103/cm3, 3.0 ± 2.0 μg/m3, 8.7 ± 6.7 μg/m3, and 2.1 ± 1.6 μg/m3, respectively. Cotinine (higher than 50 ng/mL) is used as an indicator of smoking exposure. The association between MCHC difference and per interquartile range (IQR) increase in average UFPs concentration 14 d before clinical visits was −0.7% (95% CI: −1.1% to −0.3%). Significant associations of UFPs and Acc exposure with MCHC and MCH levels remain robust after adjustment for other pollutants. Furthermore, 25.2% (95% CI: 7.4% to 64.8%) and 29.8% (95% CI: 5.3% to 214.4%) of the difference in MCHC associated with average UFPs and Acc concentrations 14 d before clinical visits were mediated by the level of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α), a biomarker of systemic inflammation. Our findings for the first time provide the evidence that short-term UFPs and Acc exposure contributed to the damage of anemia-related blood cell in the elderly, and systemic inflammation was a potential internal mediator.
12. High spatial resolution land-use regression model for urban ultrafine particle exposure assessment in Shanghai, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 816, 10 April 2022, 151633
Little is currently known about long-term health effects of ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs) due to the lack of exposure assessment metrics suitable for use in large population-based studies. Land use regression (LUR) models have been used increasingly for modeling small-scale spatial variation in UFPs concentrations in European and American, but have never been applied in developing countries with heavy air pollution.
This study developed a land-use regression (LUR) model for UFP exposure assessment in Shanghai, a typic mega city of China, where dense population resides.
A 30-minute measurement of particle number concentrations of UFPs was collected at each visit at 144 fixed sites, and each was visited three times in each season of winter, spring, and summer. The annual adjusted average was calculated and regressed against pre-selected geographic information system-derived predictor variables using a stepwise variable selection method.
The final LUR model explained 69% of the spatial variability in UFP with a root mean square error of 6008 particles cm−3. The 10-fold cross validation R2 reached 0.68, revealing the robustness of the model. The final predictors included traffic-related NOx emissions, number of restaurants, building footprint area, and distance to the nearest national road. These predictors were within a relatively small buffer size, ranging from 50 m to 100 m, indicating great spatial variations of UFP particle number concentration and the need of high-resolution models for UFP exposure assessment in urban areas.
We concluded that based on a purpose-designed short-term monitoring network, LUR model can be applied to predict UFPs spatial surface in a mega city of China. Majority of the spatial variability in the annual mean of ambient UFP was explained in the model comprised primarily of traffic-, building-, and restaurant-related predictors.
13. Prevalence, production, and ecotoxicity of chlorination-derived metformin byproducts in Chinese urban water systems
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 816, 10 April 2022, 151665
The widely used antidiabetic drug metformin has become an emerging contaminant of water systems. In a prior study, we demonstrated the marked mammalian toxicity of the disinfection-derived byproducts (DBPs) Y (yellow, C4H6ClN5) and C (colorless, C4H6ClN3), and here assess the distribution, formation, and ecotoxicity of these in Chinese urban water systems. A national tap water assessment showed that metformin and C concentrations were higher in large, dense urban areas and surface water sources than in sparsely populated areas and groundwater sources. Water types’ analysis clearly showed that C derived from chlorination of metformin-contaminated water (up to 4308.5 ng/L) circulated from domestic water (0.7–9.7 ng/L) via sewage (2.3 ng/L in effluent) to surface water (0.6–3.5 ng/L). Simulated disinfection and aqueous stability results systematically showed rapid formation and 24 h stability of both byproducts, indicating high exposure odds for water users. Both byproducts showed clear but distinct toxic effects on the growth (72 h IC50, 0.6 mg/L for Y and 4.4 mg/L for C) and photosynthesis of the microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata at milligram levels. Combinedly, our work reveals that metformin byproducts have been disseminated to urban water cycle and contaminated tap water, increasing potential toxic risk for drinking water. Its outcomes provide a preliminary reference for future studies on the environmental fate and ecotoxicological effects of unintended DBPs formed in the chlorination of metformin-contaminated water.
14. Supporting urban ecosystem services across terrestrial, marine and freshwater realms
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 817, 15 April 2022, 152689
The terrestrial, freshwater and marine realms all provide essential ecosystem services in urban environments. However, the services provided by each realm are often considered independently, which ignores the synergies between them and risks underestimating the benefits derived collectively. Greater research collaboration across these realms, and an integrated approach to management decisions can help to support urban developments and restoration projects in maintaining or enhancing ecosystem services. The aim of this paper is to highlight the synergies and trade-offs among ecosystem services provided by each realm and to offer suggestions on how to improve current practice. We use case studies to illustrate the flow of services across realms. In our call to better integrate research and management across realms, we present a framework that provides a 6-step process for conducting collaborative research and management with an Australian perspective. Our framework considers unifying language, sharing, and understanding of desired outcomes, conducting cost-benefit analyses to minimise trade-offs, using multiple modes of communication for stakeholders, and applying research outcomes to inform regulation. It can be applied to improve collaboration among researchers, managers and planners from all realms, leading to strategic allocation of resources, increased protection of urban natural resources and improved environmental regulation with broad public support.
15. Tracking pollutants in a municipal sewage network impairing the operation of a wastewater treatment plant
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 817, 15 April 2022, 152518
This work provides a screening of organic contaminants and characterization of the dissolved organic matter in the sewer network until the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), identifying the network areas with a higher degree of contamination and their impact on the WWTP performance, particularly in the activated sludge reactor. Three monitoring campaigns were carried out at six selected locations of the sewage system (PVZ-1, PVZ-2, PS-F, PS-VC, CP-VC, and PS-T), influent (WWTPINF) and effluent (WWTPEFF) of the WWTP. Advanced analytical techniques were employed, namely excitation/emission matrix fluorescence-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC), size exclusion chromatography with organic carbon detector (SEC-OCD), and liquid chromatography with high-resolution-mass spectrometric detection (LC-HRMS). EEM-PARAFAC showed higher fluorescence intensity for the protein-like component (C2), particularly at CP-VC (near seafood industries) associated with the presence of surfactants (~50 mg/L). SEC-OCD highlighted the WWTP efficiency in removing low molecular weight acids and neutrals. LC-HRMS tentatively identified 108 compounds of emerging concern (CEC) and similar detection patterns were obtained for all wastewater samples, except for PVZ-2 (lower detection), many of which occurred in the effluent. Eight CECs included on relevant Watch-Lists were detected in all WWTPEFF samples. Furthermore, 111 surfactants were detected, the classes more frequently found being alcohol ethoxylates (AEOs), nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) and linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS). The continuous presence of LAS and NPEOs allied to surfactants concentrations in the WWTPINF of 15–20 mg/L, with CP-VC location (linked with food industries) as an important contributor, explain the morphological changes in the activated sludge and high LAS content in the dewatered sludge, which may have impacted WWTP performance.
16. Heavy metals from heavy land use? Spatio-temporal patterns of urban runoff metal loads
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 817, 15 April 2022, 152855
Urban hydrology is characterized by increased runoff and various pollutant sources. We studied the spatio-temporal patterns of stormwater metal (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) concentrations and loads in five urbanized and one rural catchment in Southern Finland. The two-year continuous monitoring revealed a non-linear seasonal relationship between catchment urban intensity and metal export. For runoff, seasonal variation decreased with increasing imperviousness. The most urbanized catchments experienced greatest temporal variation in metal concentrations: the annual Cu and Zn loads in most of the studied urbanized catchments were up to 86 times higher compared to the rural site, whereas Fe loads in the urbanized catchments were only circa 29% of the rural load. Total metal levels were highest in the winter, whereas the winter peak of dissolved metal concentrations was less pronounced. The collection of catchment characteristics explained well the total metal concentrations, whereas for the dissolved concentrations the explanatory power was weaker. Our catchment-scale analysis revealed a mosaic of mainly diffuse pollutant sources and calls for catchment-scale management designs. As urban metal export occurred across seasons, solutions that operate also in cold conditions are needed.
17. Obstacles influence on existing urban canyon ventilation and air pollutant concentration: A review of potential measures
Building and Environment, Volume 214, 15 April 2022, 108905
Air pollution in cities, especially in existing urban canyons, poses a global significant long-term health risk to the urban population, and urban planners are faced with the challenge of increasing the transport of pollutants out of cities. In recent years, many research and review articles have explored passive methods of altering the urban canyon geometry using ‘obstacles’ that alter the dispersion of air flow in these canyons, thereby enhancing pollutant dispersion. These obstacles have been categorised (in previous review articles) into porous and non-porous barriers. Porous barriers include vegetated shrubs and trees, while non-porous barriers include parked cars, low boundary walls, roadside barriers, wind catchers and solar chimneys. This paper expands on previous reviews to highlight newer studies, their findings, and challenges in implementing these measures for existing urban canyons. In addition, it attempts to bring us one step closer to developing urban design guidelines that improve air quality in the urban environment.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Biodegradation of novel bioplastics made of starch, polyhydroxyurethanes and cellulose nanocrystals in soil environment
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 815, 1 April 2022, 152684
Plastic pollution is recognized as a major environmental problem in many countries. Over the last decade, academics have embraced research on bioplastics to discover newer high-end green materials. However, the end-of-life environmental fate of such materials is not adequately understood. Non-isocyanate polyhydroxyurethanes (PHUs) are green engineering materials with huge potential to replace traditional polyurethanes. Despite this immense potential, a number of questions about their environmental fate remain unanswered. The present study investigated the extent and mechanisms underlying soil biodegradation of PHUs and determined whether the deterioration of PHUs within starch bioplastics (ST) can improve the biodegradation of starch (ST)-PHU hybrids. Soil microbiomes managed to effectively and quickly digest not only PHUs but also ST-PHU hybrids. All ST-PHU hybrids were characterized by exceptional biodegradability with mass losses of up to ~88% following a soil burial time of only 120 days. The biodegradation of ST-alone bioplastics was 69% under identical conditions. The presence of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) reduced the potential for the soil microbial community to degrade nanohybrids (ST-PHU-CNC). Microbially digested bioplastics with PHU presented less stages of thermal degradation, and reduced intensities of FTIR, NMR and XPS signals compared to the original films, indicating improvement of the biodegradation mechanism. These findings suggested the positive environmental implications of PHU in improving the bioplastic’s degradation and their potential for future applications.
2. Seasonal variation and source identification of atmospheric speciated mercury in an industrial harbor area in East Asia
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 815, 1 April 2022, 152785
In this study, the pollution characteristics, spatiotemporal variation, and potential sources of atmospheric speciated mercury (ASM) in an industrial harbor area were explored. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particle-bound mercury (PBM) were sampled by a self-designed manual system at three harbor sites in four seasons. The yearly average concentrations of GEM, GOM, and PBM were 6.7 ± 2.0 ng/m3, 244 ± 70 pg/m3, and 410 ± 105 pg/m3, respectively. The seasonal average ASM concentration was in the order of: winter > fall > spring > summer. In terms of species, GEM dominated ASM, while reactive mercury (RM = GOM + PBM) accounted for 6.0–15.7%of ASM, implying that ASM was governed by anthropogenic sources in the harbor area. The highest ASM concentrations were observed at Site Zhonghe (ZH), which is mainly influenced by both ship exhausts and industrial emissions, and positively correlated with CO, NOx, and SO2. In particular, GOM was positively correlated with O3, and negatively correlated with air temperature and relative humidity, showing high impact from atmospheric photochemical reactions. Air masses transporting westerly in spring were mainly from ship exhausts. In summer, air masses transporting from the south were from utility power plants and machinery exhausts. In fall and winter, air masses were transported mainly from the north, blowing by the long-range transport of polluted air masses originated from the north. Both principal component analysis and positive matrix factorization results indicate that coal burning, industrial emissions, and vehicular exhausts are the main contributors to ASM. Site Zhongdao (ZD) was close to the bulk carrier loading and unloading zones and was highly influenced by mobile sources, while Site ZH was mainly influenced by the neighboring industrial complex.
3. Reshaping the microenvironment and bacterial community of TNT- and RDX-contaminated soil by combined remediation with vetiver grass (Vetiveria ziznioides) and effective microorganism (EM) flora
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 815, 1 April 2022, 152856
Explosive pollutants remaining in global soils are serious threats to human health and ecological safety. Soils contaminated by trinitrotoluene (TNT) and cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) are simulated in this study and remediated using vetiver grass and effective microorganism (EM) flora to determine the efficacy of combined remediation in reshaping the microenvironment and bacterial community of soils contaminated by explosives. The degradation rates of TNT and RDX after 60 days of combined remediation were 95.66% and 84.37%, respectively. Soil microbial activity and enzyme activities related to the nitrogen cycle were upregulated. The content of soil elements in the remediation group changed significantly. Vetiver remediation increased the diversity and significantly changed the structure of the microbial community. Notably, bacteria, such as Sphingomonadaceae and Actinobacteriota, which can degrade explosives, occupied the soil niche, and the Proteobacteria and Bacteroidota, which are involved in sugar metabolism, showed particularly increased abundance. The metabolism of soil carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids was upregulated in the vetiver, EM flora, and combined vetiver+EM flora remediation groups, and the most significantly upregulated pathway was galactose metabolism. The combined vetiver and EM flora treatment of soil contaminated by explosives greatly improved the ecology of the soil microenvironment.
4. Techno-economic assessment of decentralized polishing schemes for municipal water reclamation and reuse in the industrial sector in costal semiarid regions: The case of Barcelona (Spain)
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 815, 1 April 2022, 152842
This study demonstrates the techno-economic reliability of an innovative fit-for-use treatment train to boost municipal reclaimed water reuse fore industrial uses in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area (BMA). The relatively high conductivity (2090 μS/cm) and hardness (454 mg/L) of reclaimed water in the BMA (e.g. Water Reclamation Plant (WRP) of El Baix Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain), together with the restrictive water quality demands in industrial uses, claims for the implementation of advanced reclamation schemes based on desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis (RO). The study assesses the benefits of two potential pre-treatments of the RO stage: (i) ultrafiltration (UF) or (ii) an innovative high-performance nano-structured polymeric adsorbent (CNM); in which a permeability decline of 5% was observed when CNM was used as a pre-treatment, while a stable permeability of RO was found when was fed by the UF effluent. On the other hand, generic cost curves have been calculated for the technologies evaluated and were applied to estimate capital and operational expenditures (CAPEX and OPEX) for the scale-up in three different industrial sites (e.g., chemical, waste management and electro-coating industries). The economic assessment indicates that the use of municipal reclaimed water is economically competitive in front of the use of tap water in the BMA, providing savings between 0.13 and 0.52 €/m3 for the waste management industry and between 0.49 and 0.98 €/m3 for the electrocoating industry. On the other hand, the use of groundwater in one of the industrial sites and its relatively low cost implied that, although it is necessary a RO, the current cost of water is significantly lower.
5. Energy and CO2 emissions modeling for unconventional machining industry considering processing characteristics
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 816, 10 April 2022, 151542
Unconventional machining of WEDM (Wire Electrical Discharge Machining) is playing an increasingly important role in the manufacturing industry. The processing efficiency and resource consumption of this method are research hotspots from the perspective of sustainable development. Energy and CO2 emissions modeling of process machining have been recognized as an effective and economical ways to achieve energy-saving, emission-reducing and to improve process efficiency. However, the predictive modeling of energy and CO2 emissions in unconventional machining of WEDM machining has not been thoroughly fully studied. This paper proposes a predictive model of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in WEDM process considering process characteristics. The application of the energy and CO2 emissions model proposed in this paper in an example shows that the model’s energy consumption prediction accuracy for single part processing reaches 96.5%, and the energy consumption prediction accuracy for batch processing is above 99%. A new standard for cutting fluid substitution with the best machining stability and energy consumption is proposed. In the example, it is also shown that the corners in the geometric structure will reduce the processing energy consumption. The smaller the number of single folding angles, the more energy consumption will be reduced. The processing energy consumption per unit area has a greater deviation when the thickness is low, and the thickness of the workpiece will also affect the life of the electrode wire. It depends on the number of multi-layer stacks and the life of electrode wires; the quality of machine tool auxiliary materials has a greater impact on energy consumption, with a difference of up to 40% in energy consumption. The results of this research can better understand the energy consumption and CO2 emissions characteristics of the unconventional machining of WEDM.
6. Removal of denatured protein particles enhanced UASB treatment of oxytetracycline production wastewater
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 816, 10 April 2022, 151549
Enhanced hydrolysis, which can selectively destroy antibiotic potency, has been previously demonstrated to be an effective pretreatment technology for the biological treatment of antibiotic production wastewater. However, full-scale application of enhanced hydrolysis to the treatment of real oxytetracycline production wastewater showed that the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treating the pretreated wastewater could only be stable under a low organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.8 ± 0.4 g·COD/L/d. Deterioration of UASB was also confirmed in treating the same wastewater using a bench-scale reactor (R1) at an OLR of 4.4 ± 0.3 g·COD/L/d. Assuming that the particles formed due to the denaturation of soluble proteins under the hydrolysis temperature (110 °C), resulting in the significant increase of suspended solids (SS) in oxytetracycline production wastewater from less than 200 mg/L to 1200 ± 500 mg/L, were responsible for the deterioration of UASB, the pretreated wastewater was filtered using polypropylene cotton fiber and ultrafiltration membrane, and then fed into two parallel bench-scale UASB reactors (R2 and R3). Both reactors maintained a stable COD removal (53.2% ~ 61.1%) even at an OLR as high as 8.0 g·COD/L/d. When the feed of R3 was switched to unfiltered wastewater, however, deterioration of the reactor occurred again. Microscopic observation showed that the granules in R3 were fully covered by protein particles after the switch of the feed. It was possible that the tight layer of the denatured protein particles blocked the inner pores of the granules, resulting in the obstruction of substrate transfer and biogas emission, while removing the protein particles could abate such blockage problem. This study provides a scientific basis for the efficient treatment of antibiotic production wastewater.
7. Enhancement of denitrification efficiency using municipal and industrial waste fermentation liquids as external carbon sources
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 816, 10 April 2022, 151578
The addition of external carbon source for nitrogen removal from wastewater is an essential step in wastewater treatment. In this study, various external carbon sources from the fermentation of primary sludge (PS), thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS), food waste (FW), bakery processing & kitchen waste (BP + KW), fat, oil, & grease (FOG), and whey powder (WP) were successfully employed for wastewater denitrification. Methanol and acetate were also used as controls due to their common use as external carbon sources for wastewater denitrification. The denitrification performance and kinetics such as the specific denitrification rate (SDNR), denitrification potential (PDN), and the biomass yield were studied at a constant TVFA as COD/N ratio of 5 for all substrates. Complete denitrification was achieved with a NO3−-N removal efficiency of 98–99%, and no NO2− accumulation was observed at the end of the experiments for all substrates. The results revealed that the liquid fermentation filtrates exhibited higher SDNRs than methanol and acetate. This indicates the high organic matter utilization efficiency and better denitrification ability of fermentation filtrates over conventional carbon sources. WP exhibited the highest SDNR of 17.6 mg NOx − N/g VSS/h, which is approximately four times that of methanol (4.6 mg NOx − N/g VSS/h). The other carbon sources had SDNRs two to three times higher than that of methanol. However, the fermentation filtrates exhibited higher biomass yields of 0.26–0.37 mg VSS/mg COD compared to methanol of 0.21 mg VSS/mg COD, which could lead to higher sludge handling costs. Moreover, methanol exhibited higher PDN of 0.25 g N/g COD compared to all the fermentation filtrates.
8. Influence of sequential HTC pre-treatment and pyrolysis on wet food-industry wastes: Optimisation toward nitrogen-rich hierarchical carbonaceous materials intended for use in energy storage solutions
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 816, 10 April 2022, 151648
Due to elevated protein content, the food-industry bio-wastes are promising feedstock to produce hierarchical (micro-mesoporous) carbonaceous materials with the intended use as electrodes in the energy storage solutions. However, the high initial water content, makes their direct activation through high-temperature processes costineffective due to significant heat requirements. In this study, the influence of pretreatment with hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) on wet food-industry bio-wastes, further pyrolysed, was investigated. Selected wastes (brewer’s spent grains, spent coffee grains and spent sugar beets) were pre-treated by HTC at 180 °C or 240 °C, and then pyrolysed at 500 °C or 700 °C. Obtained materials were examined using elemental analysis, gas adsorption (N2 and CO2) and FT-IR. Besides minor differences caused by the bio-composition of wastes, the general trends were similar for feedstock. The pre-treatment had a beneficial influence on the properties of all wastes. The HTC at 180 °C and pyrolysis at 700 °C for all wastes show the most promising total specific surface area 560 ± 10 m2/g and accessible specific surface area 96 m2/g. Those conditions simultaneously did not reduce the total solid yield in comparison to the one-step process. The pre-treatment at 240 °C led to elevated nitrogen incorporation in the carbonaceous structure compared to HTC at 180 °C. However, it formed a hierarchical structure that was not stable for the thermal treatment. Study proves the HTC pre-treatment at 180 °C is beneficial for the conversion of food-industry bio-wastes into hierarchical carbonaceous material for their use in the energy storage systems application.
9. Temporal changes in chemical contamination of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging in a heavily industrialised seaport
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 817, 15 April 2022, 152848
Port Curtis, a major shipping port, has undergone significant expansion in the last decade, with plans for further development into the future. These activities may result in an increase of contaminant concentrations, threatening local wildlife including sea turtles. This study used a species-specific in vitro bioassay to examine spatial and temporal differences in exposure to, and effects of, organic contaminants in green sea turtles foraging in Port Curtis. Blood was collected from 134 green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from five locations in the port over four years. Organic contaminants were extracted from blood, and the cytotoxicity of the extracts to primary green sea turtle cells was assessed. Results indicated spatially similar chemical contamination throughout Port Curtis, at levels significant to sea turtle health, and with signs that chemical contamination may be increasing over time. These results can provide valuable information on the health of green turtles as further development occurs.
10. Reproducibility and long-term stability of Sn doped MnO2 nanostructures: Practical photocatalytic systems and wastewater treatment applications
Chemosphere, Volume 293, April 2022, 133646
Sn-doped MnO2 were synthesized as an oxidant, a mediator of maleic acid (C4H4O4) and SnCl2 as doping ingredient via a basic sol-gel reaction with KMnO4. XRD study signposts that tetragonal crystal structure of MnO2 (ICDD#44-0141) with a plane group of 12/m (87) for both pure and Sn doped MnO2 nanostructures. The photocatalyst synthesized has mesoporosity, allowing to the N2 adsorption/desorption experiments. The geometry of the materials varies from spherical shape in pristine MnO2 to a rod-like shape in Sn-MnO2, as observed in the SEM and TEM pictures. To examine optic properties and energy bandgaps topologies, UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was applied. In visible spectrum, overall catalytic performance of Sn-doped MnO2 was tested using methyl orange and phenol as dyes. The results suggest that the optimized Sn doped MnO2 (10 wt.%) catalyst showed higher degradation efficiency (98.5%), apparent constant (0.7841 min−1) and long term permanence. For this improved charge extraction efficiency, a potential photocatalytic mechanism was proposed.
11. Asphalt VOCs reduction of zeolite synthesized from solid wastes of red mud and steel slag
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 345, 15 April 2022, 131078
Asphalt material releases VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) during its paving and service periods. Therefore, it is an urgent need to conduct research on VOCs reduction in asphalt materials. This research reused red mud and steel slag to synthesize zeolite for asphalt VOCs reduction purpose. Two-step hydrothermal method was used and the optimized synthesis conditions were studied. The performance of asphalt VOCs reduction resulted from the optimized zeolite was also discussed. Research results indicated that zeolite Y with a specific surface area in 685 m2/g and pore volume in 0.07 cm3/g can be obtained by reusing red mud and steel slag. The pore size of the optimized zeolite is mainly concentrated between 2 and 6 nm. Moreover, addition of optimized zeolite significantly reduces the volume of asphalt VOCs by more than 45%. The incorporation of 5% zeolite performs best in adsorption experiments with the absorption capacity in 60%.
12. Efficacy of anaerobic membrane bioreactor under intermittent liquid circulation and its potential energy saving against a conventional activated sludge for industrial wastewater treatment
Energy, Volume 244, Part A, 1 April 2022, 122556
Anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was employed as a secondary treatment unit for anaerobically treated wastewater from a full-scale digester of a fish canning factory. A lab-scale hollow fiber membrane AnMBR was operated at various intermittent liquid circulation (ILC) levels using granular activated carbon (GAC) as a moving media within the reactor, at a hydraulic retention time of 8 h. The experiment was aimed to investigate the effect of ILC with ON/OFF time-interval ratios of 15/15, 30/15, 45/15 (minute/minute) versus continuous circulation. Results showed that all reactors achieved chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal above 84% while nitrogen removals of only 31.5–41.5% were attained without biological nitrification/denitrification. The overall membrane fouling rate, a change of transmembrane pressure over time, was effectively controlled in higher ILC conditions, i.e., 21.6, 10.5, 7.2 and 3.6 mbar/day at 15/15, 30/15, 45/15 ILC and continuous liquid circulation, respectively. Analyses of resistance revealed that a larger contribution by cake layer formation was found at higher ILC which was related to its morphology by SEM. Finally, the energy requirement and COD removal efficiency were compared against the activated sludge process currently used at the canning factory. The analysis suggests a sizable energy saving with the anaerobic membrane process.
13. Social acceptance toward constructing a combined heat and power plant near people’s dwellings in South Korea
Energy, Volume 244, Part B, 1 April 2022, 123175
Both nuclear and coal-fired power plants and much of renewable energy are being or will be built in areas far away from the demand for electricity in South Korea. Since social conflicts over building power transmission facilities are growing, the government is trying to increase distributed energy sources including combined heat and power (CHP). This article gathered data on the social acceptance toward constructing a CHP plant near people’s dwellings on a 9-point scale from a survey of 1000 people, and identified and investigated the factors affecting the social acceptance adopting an ordered probit model. 54.0% and 12.7% of all interviewees agreed with and opposed to the construction of a CHP plant near their dwellings, respectively, with the former being about 4.3 times more than the latter. The model secured statistical significance and various findings emerged from the results. For example, people who were living in the Seoul Metropolitan area, people with a small number of family members, old people, high-educated people, and high-income people were more receptive to the construction than others. Moreover, several implications derived during the survey were discussed from the perspective of enhancing the social acceptance.
14. Optimal design and techno-economic analysis of renewable-based multi-carrier energy systems for industries: A case study of a food factory in China
Energy, Volume 244, Part B, 1 April 2022, 123174
This paper investigates the techno-economic characteristics of renewable-based energy system design options that need to meet the multi-vector energy demand, i.e. electricity, heat and hydrogen of a food factory in four different places and two different years in China. A two-stage optimization approach is proposed: Firstly, the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software is used to obtain all feasible scenarios meeting demands with the lowest cost; Then, a Multi-Criteria Decision-Making method, Vise Kriterijumska Optimizacija kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR), is adopted to re-evaluate all feasible scenarios to determine the optimal solution considering not only the economy but also energy and environment. Different technologies, like power generation: photovoltaic panel (PV), wind turbine (WT) and both together (PV/WT), energy storage: battery, fuel cell (FC), and both (battery/FC), and hydrogen production: steam methane reforming and water electrolysis, are evaluated to find the best combination. The software results show, PV/WT combination usually has advantages over PV alone and WT alone in power generation in locations with abundant solar energy and wind energy. So is the energy storage. Reformer scenarios are much cheaper than electrolyzers. However, the VIKOR results show, the top scenarios in different locations and years are all using electrolyzers to produce hydrogen.
15. System construction for comprehensive industrial ecosystem oriented networked collaborative manufacturing platform (NCMP) based on three chains
Advanced Engineering Informatics, Volume 52, April 2022, 101538
In industrial manufacturing, with the deep integration and development of advanced digital technologies such as industrial big data, industrial Internet and industrial artificial intelligence with manufacturing industry, the manufacturing model is gradually developing and evolving from the direction of networking, platform, integration, collaboration and ecology. Therefore, for industrial manufacturing process, the research of construction of comprehensive industrial ecosystem oriented Networked Collaborative Manufacturing Platform (NCMP) system is great industrial application value by integrating network characteristics, platform elements, integrated mechanism, collaborative model and ecological format. In this paper, the system model of NCMP is constructed from four perspectives, including network perspective, collaborative manufacturing perspective, platform perspective, and industrial ecosystem perspective. Then, a system framework of NCMP based on three chains (manufacturing chain, value chain, and industrial chain) is proposed. Three collaborative subsystems of NCMP (vertical collaboration subsystem from multi perspective, horizontal collaboration subsystem from multi process, end to end collaboration subsystem from multi operator) are constructed. At last, a comprehensive system construction for NCMP in automobile industry is giving. The research results show that the most important elements to construct NCMP are purchasing department collaboration, demand department collaboration, design collaboration, data integration between enterprises and factories, etc.
16. Investigation into the interaction of biomass waste with industrial solid waste during co-pyrolysis and the synergetic effect of its char gasification
Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 159, April 2022, 106414
In this work, the interaction between waste cypress sawdust (WCS) and coal liquefaction residue (CLR), a type of industrial solid waste, during co-pyrolysis was studied by thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The gasification reaction characteristics of co-pyrolysis char were also evaluated. The results showed that both promoting and inhibiting effects existed in the co-pyrolysis process of WCS and CLR. When the pyrolysis temperature was less than 420 °C, the catalysis of minerals was conducive to the pyrolysis reaction. At higher temperatures, the polycondensation and carbonization produced by the interaction between the components inhibited the release of volatiles. The gasification reactivity of co-pyrolysis char was better than that of individual WCS and CLR chars. The synergistic effect was most obvious when the blending ratio of WCS to CLR was 3:1. In the gasification process of co-pyrolysis char, the WCS component with better reactivity preferentially reacted to form an abundant pore structure, which exposed more reactive sites and promoted the diffusion and mass transfer of gasification agent. Moreover, alkali and alkaline earth metal species in WCS and iron bearing minerals in CLR can catalyze the gasification reaction, contributing to the synergistic effect. Therefore, the addition of a suitable solid waste to biomass waste can improve the energy efficiency and simultaneously achieve solid waste utilization.
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